Biological Psychology Final Notes

Topics: Neuron, Nervous system, Action potential Pages: 6 (1980 words) Published: August 25, 2013
Chapter 2- Darwin was the first to suggest how evolutionoccurs. Humans belong to the primate family known as hominins. Characteristics that evolved to perform one function but were co-opted to perform another function are called exaptations. Each group of three consecutive nucleotide bases along the strand of messenger RNA is called a codon, which instructs the ribosome to add amino acids to the protein being constructed. Subsequent to the nature-nuture issue, a second line of thought surrounding the biology of behavior is the dualistic physiological-psychological debate. Courtship displays are thought to be important because they promote the evolution of new species. Amphibians evolved from bony fishes and later into reptiles, the first vertebrates to lay shell-covered eggs and to be covered with dry scales. In most species mating is indiscriminate or promiscuous; however, there are some species in which males and females create mating bonds with members of the opposite sex. Genes that contain the information necessary for the synthesis of proteins are enhancer genes. Not all DNA is found in the nucleus of the cell; some is found in mitochondria. Monoallelic expression occurs when one of the two alleles of a gene is inactivated, due to an unidentified epigenetic mechanism, and the other allele is expressed. Descartes claimed the mind is made up of the soul, body, and spirit. RNA is like DNA except it contains the base uracil instead of thymine. Epigenetic mechanisms are thought to be the means by which a small number of genes are able to orchestrate the development of human complexity. The mate-bonding pattern in which bonds are formed between one male and one female is known as monogamy. Evolution is not always adaptive. Incidental non-adaptive byproducts are called spandrels. Mitochondria are energy generation structures that are located in the cytoplasm of every cell. Each chromosome has double stranded molecules known as DNA and each is a sequence of nucleotide bases. Courtship displays are thought to be important because the promote the evolution of new species. Chapter 3- CNS is made up of the brain and spinal cord. PNS is located outside the skull and spine and serves to bring info to the CNS and carry signals out of the CNS. PNS: Somatic Nervous System – Afferent nerves (sensory) Efferent nerves (motor). Autonomic Nervous System- Sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves and both nerves are efferent. Sympathetic - thoracic and lumbar, “fight or flight,” second stage neurons are far from the target organ. Parasympathetic – cranial and sacral, “rest and restore,” second stage neurons are near the target organ. All nerves are efferent. Sympathetic and parasympathetic generally have opposite effects. Two stage neural paths, neuron exiting the CNS synapses on a second stage neuron before the target organ. Protective mechanisms of the CNS – bone (brain & spinal cord), meninges (protective membranes), cerebrospinal fluid, and blood brain barrier. CNS encased in bone and covered by three meninges: dura mater- tough outer membrane, arachnoid membrane – web like, pia mater – adheres to CNS surface. Ventricles & spinal cord – contain spinal fluid, cushion against mechanical shock, delivery of hormones, delivery of nutrients. Cerebral Vascular system – delivery of nutrients (glucose, thiamine), delivery of hormones (communication), thermoregulation (maintain temperature), blood brain barrier. Two Types of Cells in Nervous System: neurons – transmit electrical and chemical signals, different types of neurons. Glia – different types, different functions. Neurons – specialized cells for the reception, conduction and transmission of electrochemical signals AND many sizes and shapes. Neurons-messengers-release of chemical that forms communication with other neurons. Semi-permeable membranes – uncharged molecules; move freely across membrane, a few charged molecules (sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride) move through channels,...
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