Exam Review – January 2013
- List taxonomic ranks in order. What is the significance of this order? Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species. Classification of species: kingdoms contain many different types of organisms, each taxon contains progressively fewer types of organisms, taxon “species” is narrowest category, containing only one type of organism. As you go from kingdom to species, organisms share more and more in common.
- Explain and give an example of each of the following types of evidence of relationships Organisms are classified according to: Similar Morphology: (appearance and structure), common Phylogeny: (evolutionary history)
o Anatomical evidence: (structures of organisms) fossil evidence, homologous structures. Fossils reveal anatomical structures of past organisms and their relationships with living organisms. Homologous structures are structures found in different species that have similar form or configuration due to divergent evolution (common ancestor). The greater the amount of homology between two species, the more closely related they are. Ex) whale cat, gorilla, bat forelimbs(different functions but same bone structures) o DNA evidence: (Similar DNA sequences) Genes are made of DNA, the base sequence of DNA is read in groups called codons, each group of 3 bases specifies a particular amino acid, the base sequence of a gene determines the amino acid sequence that make up a protein. Ex) turkey vulture and water stork. T-rex and chicken o Physiological evidence: (function of organisms) similar biochemical molecules such as proteins. Closely related organisms share very similar amino acid sequences for their proteins. Ex) Humans and rate share 91% amino acid sequence similarity
- Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Label representative diagrams. |Prokaryotic |Eukaryotic | |No membrane-bound nucleus |Has membrane-bound nucleus | |Circular loop DNA |Paired chromosomes | |DNA in nucleoid region |Nucleus | |Extra DNA in plasmid |Extra DNA in Mitochondria and Chloroplast | |Smaller in size |Bigger in size | |Unicellular |Multicellular | |Aerobic/anaerobic |Aerobic | |Cellular respiration occurs in cell membrane |Cellular respiration occurs in mitochondria and cytoplasm | |No internal compartments and membrane bound organelles |Membrane-bound organelles | |Protein synthesis: ribosomes |Ribosomes | |Rotaing flagella and gliding |Undulating flagella and cilia, amoeboid movement | |Sex/attachment pilli |No pili | |Archaea and Bacteria |Protista, Plantae, Fungi, Animalia |
- Draw a flowchart to show the relationship between the three main domains and the 6 kingdoms. |Domain...
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