Chapter 13- Cognitive behavioral therapy: coping skills
"We are confronted with difficult situations, we tell ourselves what to do, what to think, and how to feel. Self-instructions- are directed self-talk and serve six different functions, PREPARING CLIENT TO USE SELF-INSTRUCTIONS, FOCUSING ATTENTION GUIDING BEHAVIOR “All right. PROVIDING ENCOURAGEMENT . EVALUATING PERFORMANCE. REDUCING ANXIETY Meichenbaum developed self-instructional training to teach people to direct themselves to cope effectively with difficult situations. Children who act impulsively do not think before acting,
Undesirable consequences for both them and other people. The general goal of self-instructional training for impulsive behaviors is to teach children to think and plan - to “stop, look, and listen. There are five steps
1. Cognitive modeling. An adult model performs a task while verbalizing aloud a deliberate strategy. As an example, while demonstrating a line copying task, the model said aloud, 2. Cognitive participant modeling. The child performs the task as the model verbalizes the instructions aloud. 3. Overt self-instructions. The child performs the task while verbalizing the instructions aloud. 4. Fading of overt self-instructions. The child performs the task while whispering the instructions. 5. Covert self-instructions. Finally, the child performs the task while saying the instructions to her or himself. There are advantages to clients’ using both overt and covert self-instructions. Others can monitor overt self-instructions. Overt self- instructions are likely to increase clients’ attention to self-instructions because clients actually hear them aloud.
Enhancing the Effects of Self-Instructional Training
relationship with the therapist also is empirically positive These procedures include making training materials (such as work sheets) similar to those the children will use in the classroom and arranging training situations to simulate normal classroom conditions, such as conducting self-instructional training in the presence of other children The types of self- instructions children are taught influence generalization to different tasks. Greater generalization than task-specific instructions
Self-Instructional Training in Perspective 351
Self-instructional training is primarily used with children, it also is used with adolescents and adults Self-instructional training has been used to guide job-related tasks of adults with mental retardation. The training has resulted in significant improvements in work-related on-task behaviors, accuracy of performance, completion of tasks, and punctuality. Problem-Solving Therapy/Training 352
Problem solving refers to a systematic process by which a person (1) generates a variety of potentially effective solutions to a problem, (2) sensibly chooses the best of these solutions, and (3) implements and evaluates the chosen solution. First, it treats the immediate problems for which clients seek treatment. Second, it prepares clients to deal with future problems on their own, which may help prevent psychological disorders from developing Problem-solving training, in contrast to therapy, serves only the second function. It teaches problem-solving skills as a general coping strategy for dealing with problems that may arise in the course of daily life. The training often is provided for populations who have been identified as being at risk for developing psychological disorders
Stage 1: Adopting a Problem-Solving Orientation- (1) It is necessary to identify problems when they occur so that appropriate action can be taken; (2) problems are a normal part of life, and people can learn to cope with them; and (3) effective problem solving involves carefully assessing alternative courses of action. Stage 2: Defining the Problem- the therapist helps the client precisely define the problem Stage 3: Setting Goals- What must happen so that I...
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