Beginning with Science 02: Scientific Investigation
For this assignment you will do two things:
Part I: Evaluate one experimental design. (10 points)
Part II: Design your own experiment using the scientific method. (40 points) Review each scenario below, and choose one to complete for your assignment. Each scenario contains specific questions that will ask you to provide examples, explain your suggestions for improvement, and refer to the lesson. Be sure to respond to each question in complete sentences. Part I: Scenarios (select only one)
Christopher and Kate noticed that after a rainstorm some of the rocks in their yard appear to shrink. They wondered how the mass of the rocks changed when dissolved in water. To determine this, Kate purchased a variety of rocks from a local shop, carefully recording the types of rocks in a data chart. Christopher gathered rocks from the backyard to add to the rocks Kate purchased. They measured each rock's initial mass; then they inserted the rocks one by one into 100 milliliters of water and measured the mass of each rock after it had sat in the water for five minutes. Both Christopher and Kate concluded that store-bought rocks do not dissolve in water. They also concluded that to get rocks that dissolve in water they must be gathered directly from the yard. 1.
Describe why the investigation above is not adequate to explain what types of rocks will dissolve in water. 2.
Using what Christopher and Kate have already observed, suggest a possible hypothesis regarding how the mass of a rock changes when placed in water. Identify the independent and dependent variables. 3.
Describe, in detail, a procedure to test your hypothesis. Identify the controlled variables. Scenario 2
Lizzie loves to stargaze at night. She has noticed that the moon appears to change shape over the course of the month, and she wants to investigate why this happens. She hypothesizes that the relationship of the sun, Earth, and moon creates shadows on the moon. She sets up an experiment with a light bulb to represent the sun, a large beach ball to represent Earth, and a smaller foam ball to represent the moon. She researches the position of the sun, Earth, and moon at different times of a month and makes a model of the entire system. 1. Identify the parts of the scientific method in Lizzie's experiment. 1. What's Lizzies problem? The moon appears to change shape over the month. 2. WHat did Lizzie think the answer to her problem was? The relationship of the sun, Earth, and moon creates shadows on the moon. 3. What materials did she use to solve her problem? Light bulb, large beach ball, and a smaller foam ball. 4. What was Lizzes step by step method in order to answer her question? She followed the postion of the sun, Earth, and moon at different times of a month. 5.What happened when Lizze did her experiment? 6. What were her findings? Was her hyothesis correct? How do you know? 2. List at least three variables Lizzie should control during the experiment. For each variable identified, give a specific suggestion for how Lizzie can control it. 1. External light sources could distrot or impede the shadows. 2.Distance realationships between the balls and the light source; varying your distances too dramatically or not adequtely enough could alter the shadows. 3. Refelective surfaces around the light source or the balls or even on the balls themselves.
Matthew notices that if he walks barefoot on blacktop pavement, his feet get much hotter than if he walks barefoot on grass or dirt. He wants to determine if the amount of blacktop pavement in a city will affect the overall temperature of the city. His hypothesis states that because the pavement absorbs heat from the sun, a city with more pavement will have a higher temperature. Matthew uses a map to measure the number of miles of pavement within the limits of his hometown. He then records the...
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