April 20th, 2012
3rd AP Language and Composition
Argumentation and Logical Fallacies
Scare Tactics= Coercing a favorable response by preying upon an audience’s fears. Anti-drug commercial- This is your brain. These are drugs. This is your brain on drugs. (with the appropriate pictures. Either or choices= making an audience choose between one choice or the other. “Either you’’’ do this or I’ll leave you. Slippery Slope= A fallacy in which a course of action is objected to on the grounds that once taken it will lead to additional actions until some undesirable consequence occurs. “All politics takes place on a slippery slope. The most important four words in politics are ‘up to a point.’ Sentimental Appeals= when emotion is used to distract an audience from the real facts. “The thousands of baby seals killed in the Exxon Valdez oil spill have sown us that oil is not a reliable energy source.” Bandwagon Appeals= encourage audiences to agree with an author because everyone else is doing so. “When Alabama was winning national titles, I was a fan of them, but I switched to Florida when they started winning.” Purple Patch= a section in a piece of writing characterized by rich, fanciful, ornate language. Still full of pride and passion, if not his old athleticism, Carey enjoyed a purple patch in the third quarter, booting three goals. Ethical Appeals
Appeals to False Authority= using a biased, suspicious, or incredible source to defend a conclusion. The mother responded to her child when he asked why with, ‘Because I said so.” Dogmatism= Proposing that there simply be any other possible way of making sense of and engaging with an issue but the one you represent. “There’s no way that anyone can argue that abortion is anything other than murder.” Moral Equivalence= Proposing that because some people act a certain way, then everyone has the right to act that way as well. “If governments are going to impose restrictions on smoking for health...
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