APUSH STUDY GUIDE
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Juan Ponce de Leon- looked for fountain of youth in Florida. Died by an Indian Arrow
Francisco Coronado- Looked for "golden cities" which were actually pueblos. Went to Arizona and New Mexico. Found the Grand Canyon and large "herds" of buffalo
John Cabot- Explored northeastern America (1497-1498). English sent him known as Giovanni Caboto (Not entirely sure if he was English himself)
Treaty of Tordesillas- Spain celebrated Columbus’s arrival in America by taking of lot of land in North America. They compensated the Portuguese with some parts of Asia and Africa and also Brazil.
Iroquois Confederacy- Composed of several tribes and nations of the natives in North America. Had extreme political and military skills that made them feared among other natives and even the colonists.
Encomienda- Allowed Government to "give" Indians to colonists in hopes of Christianizing them. Was actually slavery.
Powhatan(Group or chief? Did both.)- Is a name of an Indian confederation of tribes that were located in Virginia. Chief Powhatan united 30 tribes to form this confederacy. Interacted with Jamestown colonists whom among them were captain john smith. They essentially helped the colonists survived and created the story of Pocahontas (whom was real and helped Smith)
Handsome Lake- Was a Seneca Indian whom played a major role in reviving traditional religion among various Indians including the Iroquois confederacy. Colonization caused a great loss of culture so his religious beliefs greatly benefited the pessimistic Indians. Was known as a prophet.
Lord Baltimore- Leader of the catholic "haven" colony of Maryland. Promoted the act of toleration (1689). This act only applied to Christian religions and was targeted to help the many Catholics in his colony.
James Oglethorpe- Founder of the colony of Georgia. Very keen social reformer. He was very eager for prison reform. He came up with the prison idea in Georgia, but the main part was that Georgia existed as a buffer between British Colonies and Spanish Florida.
Francis Drake- an extremely famous English explorer. Knighted by Queen Elizabeth. Carried out the second circumnavigation of the world. Found "new ablion" in the region of the pacific coast of North America that was believed to have been in present-day northern California.
William Penn- Founder of the colony of largely Quaker Pennsylvania. Was an early champion of religious freedom and democracy. Extremely notable for his good relations with the natives(lenapes) in the surrounding area. Under his direction established the city of Philadelphia. (Not in book: Wrote the Frame of government which would serve as an inspiration for the united states Constitution. He urged for the union of all colonies.)
Elizabeth I- Prominent Female Queen Of England. Deeply Protestant (which was why some religious minorities left England). Sponsored many voyages in the New World especially with Francis Drake.
Joint-Stock Company- Also known as the Virginia Company of London. Received a charter from James I of England for a settlement in the New World. Determined to find a passage through america to the indies. Only intended to endure for a few years after of which its stockholders would liquidate it for profit. Caused the seeds of a future nation to grow. No one expected them to eventually colonize and create JamesTown.
Yeoman- Small landowning family farmers(were basically lower class farmers). Were typically found in the south and definitely out-powered by the large plantation owners.They were subsistence farmers which meant they farmed to feed not to profit. Some people such as Thomas Jefferson argued that yeoman formed the foundation of Republican values.
Maryland Act of Toleration- Occurred in 1689. Applied to most forms of christianity. Mainly hoped by Baltimore to help the catholics in his colony.
Virginia Company - (Basically joint stock...
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