AP US History
Chapter 2 Identifications
1.) English Protestant Reformation: took place in 1530’s when King Henry VII broke with the Roman Catholic Church. 2.) “Sea Dogs”: English buccaneers who sought to promote the twin goals of Protestantism and plunder by seizing Spanish treasure ships and raiding Spanish settlements. 3.) Francis Drake: famous “sea dog” who returned in 1580 with his ship full of Spanish booty and was knighted by Queen Elizabeth on the deck of his ship. 4.) Sir Humphrey Gilbert: promoter of the first English attempt at colonization; lost his life at sea in 1583. 5.) Sir Walter Raleigh: Sir Humphrey Gilbert’s half-brother who was inspired by Gilbert’s dream to try again in warmer climes. Organized an expedition that first landed in 1585 on Roanoke Island that later vanished after several false starts. 6.) “Invincible Armada”: Phillip II of Spain created this, ships for an invasion of England. Marked the beginning of the end of Spanish imperial dreams. 7.) Elizabeth I: Accused of being vain, prejudiced and miserly, she proved to be an usually successful leader. Never married. 8.) Enclosure: because the population was “mushrooming”, landlords had to enclose the croplands, putting many farmers out of business and on the roads. 9.) “Surplus Population”: What England was being described as during the 17th century because the population had increased from 3 to 4 million people from 1550 to 1600. 10.) Primogeniture: laws that decreed that only eldest sons were eligible to inherit landed estates. 11.) Joint-Stock Company: this enables a considerable number of investors, called “adventurers,” to pool their capital. 12.) Virginia Company: a joint-stock company that received a charter for King James I for England for a settlement in the New World. This joint-stock company, like many, was intended to endure for only a few years, after which its stockholders hoped to liquidate it for a profit. 13.) James I: “had scant enthusiasm for the Virginia experiment, partly because of his hatred of tobacco smoking, which had been introduced into the Old World by the Spanish discoverers.” 14.) “Rights of Englishmen”: The charter of the Virginia Company guaranteed to the overseas settlers the same rights of Englishmen that they would have enjoyed if they had stayed a home. This was supposed to reinforce the colonists’ sense that they remained comfortable with the traditional English Institutions. Their insistence on the “Right of Englishmen” ironically led the colonists to an appetite for independence a century and a half later. 15.) Jamestown: An area near the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay where Indians attacked the colonists and English settlers who landed there. They names the area after King James I. It was also infested with mosquitos. 16.) Captain John Smith: the leader who took over in 1608 and whipped the gold hungry colonists into line. 17.) Powhatan: The Indian Chieftain who subjected Captain John Smith to a mock execution, his intentions were to impress Smith with his power and with the Indians’ desire for peaceful relations with the Virginians. 18.) Pocahontas: Powhatan’s daughter was became an intermediary between the Indians and the settlers, helping to preserve a shaky peace and to provide needed supplies. 19.) Starving Time: took place in the winter of 1609-1610 when food was so scarce that then men actually resorted to eating cats, dogs, mice, rats and corpses. Out of the 400 men who made it to Virginia in 1609, only 60 survived “the starving time”. 20.) Lord De La Warr: the new governor that the men returned home to. He ordered the settlers back to Jamestown, imposed a harsh military regime on the colony, and soon undertook aggressive military action against the Indians. 21.) “Irish Tactics”: Lord De La Warr, being a veteran of campaigns against the Irish, ordered the “Irish Tactics” against the Indians. His troops raided Indian villages, burned...
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