Chapter 4: American Life in the 17th Century, 1607-1692
1. William Berkeley - He was a British colonial governor of Virginia from 1642-52. He showed that he had favorites in his second term which led to the Bacon's rebellion in 1676 ,which he ruthlessly suppressed. He had poor frontier defense.
2. Nathaniel Bacon - was a colonist of the Virginia Colony, famous as the instigator of Bacon's Rebellion of 1676, which collapsed when Bacon himself died from dysentery.
3. Cotton Mather – was a socially and politically influential New England Puritan minister, prolific author and pamphleteer; he is often remembered for his role in theSalem witch trials.
4. Indentured servitude - consisted of a worker (the "indentured servant"), usually from a foreign country, agreeing to work for a specific time, usually about 7-8 years, to pay off his costs of travel to the new country.
5. Slave codes - were laws which each colony, enacted which defined the status of slaves and the rights of masters. Such codes gave slave-owners absolute power over their human property.
6. Headright system - way to attract immigrants; gave 50 acres of land to anyone who paid their way and/or any plantation owner that paid an immigrants way; mainly a system in the southern colonies.
7. Jeremiads - In the 1600's, Puritan preachers noticed a decline in the religious devotion of second-generation settlers. To combat this decreasing piety, they preached a type of sermon called the jeremiad. The jeremiads focused on the teachings of Jeremiah, a Biblical prophet who warned of doom.
8. Middle passage - middle segment of the forced journey that slaves made from Africa to America throughout the 1600's; it consisted of the dangerous trip across the Atlantic Ocean; many slaves perished on this segment of the journey.
9. Congregational church - are Protestant Christian churches practicing Congregationalist church governance, in which each congregationindependently and autonomously runs its own affairs.
10. Royal African Company - was a slaving company set up by the Stuart family and London merchants once the former retook the English throne in the English Restoration of 1660. It was led by James, Duke of York, Charles II's brother.
11. Yeoman - could refer to a free man holding a small landed estate, a minor landowner, a small prosperous farmer (especially from the Elizabethan era to the 17th century), a deputy, assistant, journeyman, or a loyal or faithful servant.
12. Gullah - are African Americans who live in the Lowcountry region of South Carolina and Georgia, which includes both the coastal plain and the Sea Islands. Historically, the Gullah region once extended north to the Cape Fear area on the coast of North Carolina and south to the vicinity of Jacksonville on the coast ofFlorida; but today the Gullah area is confined to the South Carolina and Georgia Lowcountry.
13. Ringshouting - is an ecstatic, transcendent religious ritual, first practiced by African slaves in the West Indies and the United States and their descendants, in which worshipers move in a circle while shuffling and stomping their feet and clapping their hands.
14. Proprietors - One who owns or owns and manages a business or other such establishment.
15. Massachusetts School Law of 1647 - They are commonly regarded as the historical first step toward compulsory government-directed public education in the United States of America. Shortly after the three laws passed, similar laws were enacted in the other New England colonies
16. Harvard – established by the Massachusetts Puritans in 1636. Today, it is the oldest corporation in America. It is established to train local boys for the ministry.
17. William & Mary – established by the Virginians in 1693, 86 years after staking out Jamestown.
18. Salem witch trials - were a series of hearings before county court trials to prosecute people accused of witchcraft in the counties of Essex, Suffolk,...
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