Unit 1 Study Guide – Chapters 1-6
Australopithecus- an extinct genus of small-brained, large-toothed bipedal hominids that live in Africa between one and four million years ago. Paleolithic Age- At sites dating from the Lower Paleolithic Period (about 2,500,000 to 200,000 years ago), simple pebble tools have been found in association with the remains of what may have been the earliest human ancestors. Neanderthal- an unenlightened or ignorant person; barbarian. Neolithic Age- New Stone Age.
Venus Figurines-is an umbrella term for a number of prehistoric statuettes of women portrayed with similar physical attributes from the Upper Paleolithic, mostly found in Europe, but with finds as far as Irkutsk Oblast, Siberia, extending their distribution to much of Eurasia, from the Pyrenees to Lake Baikal. Infanticide-the crime of killing a child within a year of birth. Agriculture Revolution - An agricultural revolution or agrarian revolution is a period of transition from the pre-agricultural period characterized by a Paleolithic diet, into an agricultural period characterized by a diet of cultivated foods; or a further transition from a living form of agriculture into a more advanced and more productive form of agriculture, resulting in further social changes, and some argue in worse individual living conditions Slash-and-Burn-of, relating to, or denoting a method of agriculture in which existing vegetation is cut down and burned off before new seeds are sown, typically used as a method for clearing forest land for farming. Homo erectus-an extinct species of the human lineage, formerly known as Pithecanthropus erectus, having upright stature and a well-evolved postcranial skeleton, but with a smallish brain, low forehead, and protruding face. Homo Sapiens- the species of bipedal primates to which modern humans belong, characterized by a brain capacity averaging 1400 cc (85 cubic in.) and by dependence upon language and the creation and utilization of complex tools. Cro-Magnon/ Homo sapiens sapiens- the subspecies of the genus Homo in which modern humans are classified. Mesopotamia- an ancient region in W Asia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers: now part of Iraq.
Ziggurats- a temple of Sumerian origin in the form of a pyramidal tower, consisting of a number of stories and having about the outside a broad ascent winding round the structure, presenting the appearance of a series of terraces. Cuneiform- composed of slim triangular or wedge-shaped elements, as the characters used in writing by the ancient Akkadians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, and others. Sumerians- of or pertaining to Sumer, its people, or their language. Assyrians- of or pertaining to Assyria, its inhabitants, or their language. Phoenicians- a native or inhabitant of Phoenicia.
Torah- (in Judaism) the law of God as revealed to Moses and recorded in the first five books of the Hebrew Scriptures (the Pentateuch). Hittites-a member of an ancient people who established an empire in Asia Minor and Syria that flourished from circa 1700 to circa 1200 BC. Hebrews-a member of an ancient people living in what is now Israel and Palestine and, according to biblical tradition, descended from the patriarch Jacob, grandson of Abraham. After the Exodus (circa 1300 BC) they established the kingdoms of Israel and Judah, and their scriptures and traditions form the basis of the Jewish religion. Monotheism- the doctrine or belief that there is only one God Yahweh- a form of the Hebrew name of God used in the Bible. The name can to be regarded by Jews (circa 300 BC) as too scared to be spoken, and the vowel sounds are uncertain. Polytheism- the belief in or worship of more than one God
Hammurabi- Babylonia King in the 18th century
Abraham- the first of the great Biblical patriarchs, father of Isaac, and traditional founder of the ancient Hebrew nation David / Solomon- the second king of the United Kingdom of Israel Nebuchadnezzar- a...
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