AP Gov Court Cases

Topics: Law, Human rights Pages: 37 (1116 words) Published: October 13, 2013
Court
 Cases
 
McCulloch
 vs.
 Maryland
 –
 1819,
 Maryland
 tried
 to
 tax
 the
 US
 Bank,
 a
 national
 bank.
 
 Resulted
 in
 
Maryland’s
 law
 being
 declared
 illegal,
 because
 the
 states
 cannot
 tax
 a
 Federal
 institution.
 
Gibbons
 vs.
 Ogden
 –
 1824,
 gave
 Congress
 the
 power
 to
 regulate
 interstate
 commerce.
 
 Ogden
 was
 
running
 a
 ferry
 service
 and
 tried
 to
 keep
 Gibbons’
 service
 out
 of
 New
 York
 waters,
 citing
 that
 navigation
 
was
 not
 commerce.
 
 Failed,
 Gibbons
 sued
 for
 entry.
 
Dred
 Scott
 vs.
 Sanford
 –
 1857,
 Declared
 that
 since
 Dred
 Scott
 was
 a
 slave,
 he
 couldn’t
 even
 bring
 the
 
case
 to
 court,
 and
 also
 declared
 the
 Missouri
 Compromise
 unconstitutional.
 
 (Judicial
 activism?)
 
Baker
 vs.
 Carr
 –
 1962,
 redistricting
 for
 state
 legislatures,
 Baker
 said
 that
 the
 population
 had
 shifted
 yet
 
Tennessee
 had
 not
 redistricted
 since
 1901,
 even
 though
 they
 had
 to
 every
 10
 years.
 
 As
 a
 result,
 there
 
were
 less
 votes
 in
 the
 rural
 districts
 than
 the
 city.
 
Wesberry
 vs.
 Sander
 s
 –
 1964,
 involved
 Congressional
 districts
 in
 Georgia.
 
 Ruled
 that
 districts
 had
 to
 be
 
relatively
 equal
 in
 population.
 
 “One
 person,
 one
 vote”
 
Shaw
 vs.
 Reno
 –
 1993,
 ruling
 on
 redistricting
 and
 gerrymandering
 according
 to
 race.
 North
 Carolina
 tried
 
to
 redistrict
 so
 that
 one
 district
 (along
 the
 highway)
 had
 a
 black
 majority.
 
 Ended
 up
 ruling
 that
 districts
 
have
 to
 be
 compact
 and
 contiguous.
 
US
 vs.
 Nixon
 –
 1974,
 ruled
 that
 “executive
 privilege”
 was
 not
 allowed
 in
 a
 criminal
 trial
 (Watergate
 era)
 
Clinton
 vs.
 City
 of
 New
 York
 –
 1998,
 ruled
 that
 the
 line-­‐item
 veto
 was
 unconstitutional
 
Jones
 vs.
 Clinton
 –
 1997,
 ruled
 that
 a
 President
 could
 be
 sued
 even
 for
 things
 that
 happened
 before
 he
 
took
 Office.
 
Marbury
 vs.
 Madison
 –
 1803,
 formed
 basis
 for
 judicial
 review.
 
 Marbury
 had
 been
 appointed
 by
 Adams
 
but
 didn’t
 get
 the
 commission,
 and
 Madison
 didn’t
 deliver
 the
 documents
 (he
 was
 sec
 of
 state)
 
Buckley
 vs.
 Valeo
 –
 1976,
 set
 limits
 on
 campaign
 contribution
 but
 ruled
 that
 soft
 money
 was
 a
 form
 of
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