Due to science and the discovery of a “heliocentric” universe, there was a transformation of humankind’s perception of its place in the larger scheme of things. This new worldview led to new thinking about moral and religious matters, as well as scientific theory. New ideas and methods of science challenged modes of thought associated with late medieval times like scholasticism and philosophy. The Protestant Reformation and the discovery of the Americas presented new uncertainties that caused Europeans to question their souls, geographical knowledge, and physical nature. Section One: The Scientific Revolution
The process that resulted in the view of the universe is typically called the Scientific Revolution. The Scientific Revolution was not rapid as it took the brilliant minds of dislocated scientists in laboratories in Poland, Italy, Denmark, Bohemia, France and Great Britain, as well as many local artisans they hired to help created instruments for study to produce this new science. During the fifteenth century, individuals interested in natural philosophy worked at universities, in home workshops, or the courts of royal families; it wasn’t until the late seventeenth century that formal societies and academies devoted to science were founded. Science became the greatest cultural authority in the western world. Nicolaus Copernicus Rejects an Earth-Centered Universe
Polish priest and scientist
educated at the University of Krakow
wrote On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Orbs/Spheres in 1543 Commissioned to find astronomical justification so that the papacy could change the calendar so that it could correctly calculate the date of Easter, Copernicus’s work provided an intellectual springboard from which scientist could posit questions about Earth’s position in the universe. Was not published when he was alive because he thought he would be burned since it went against the church Also, everything was wrong; EXCEPT EVERYTHING GOES AROUND THE SUN (HELIOCENTRIC) Ptolemaic System
Ptolemy, a Roman citizen of Greek ancestry, wrote the Almagest (150CE) was considered the authority on astronomy throughout the Middle Ages and it suggested a geocentric model of the universe. Ptolemaic World System (CHURCH AGREES WITH THE PTOLEMAIC SYSTEM AKA GEOCENTRIC) Above the earth lay a series of concentric spheres, probably fluid in character, one of which contained the moon, another the sun, and still others the planets and the stars. The outer realm contains God and angels
The problem of the motions of the planets was something astronomers struggled to chart. Ptolemy believed that the planets moved uniformly about a small circle called an epicycle and the center of the epicycle moved about a larger circle—called a deferent—with the earth at or near its center. The circles in Ptolemy’s system were not orbits but rather components of mathematical calculations meant to predict planetary positions. Copernicus’s Universe
Copernicus’s Model adopted many elements in the Ptolemaic model, but transferred them to a heliocentric model, which assumed the earth moved about the sun in a circle. He proposed that the farther planets are away from the sun, the longer they took to revolve around it which enabled astronomers to rank the planets in terms of distance from the sun. Although very few astronomers embraced the Copernican system—at least for a century—it did allow other people who were not satisfied with the Ptolemaic view to think in new directions. Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) and Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) Make New Scientific Observations Brahe’s contributions to science
He did not believe Copernicus’s view and spent much of life advocating for a geocentric system. He posited that Mercury and Venus revolved around the sun but that the moon, the sun, and other planters revolved around the earth. He collected very detailed data of his observations.
HIS WORK SUPPORTED COPERNICUS,...
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