AntiMicrobial

Topics: DNA, Genetics, Cloning Pages: 4 (839 words) Published: October 1, 2013
Introduction
What is cloning?
The production of identical copies of molecules, cells, or organisms from a single ancestor. Cloning is to duplicate a cell or an organism, usually asexually, which is genetically an exact replica of the other cell or organism. What is Clone?

It is a group of genetically identical cells
It is also an organism which is genetically an exact replica of another organism. Cloning Dolly the Sheep
The first mammal to be cloned from an adult cell
Roslin Institute in Scotland
The only lamb born from 277 attempts,
From 277 cell fusions, 29 early embryos developed and were implanted into 13 surrogate mothers. But only one pregnancy went to full term, and the 6.6 kg Finn Dorset lamb 6LLS (alias Dolly) was born after 148 days. Born on 5 July 1996, she was euthanased on 14 February 2003, aged six and a half. Before Dolly…

1962 - John Gurdon claims to have cloned frogs from adult cells. 1963 - J.B.S. Haldane coins the term 'clone.'
1966 - Establishment of the complete genetic code.
1967 - Enzyme DNA ligase isolated.
1969 - Shapiero and Beckwith isolate the first gene.
1970 - First restriction enzyme isolated.
1972 - Paul Berg creates the first recombinant DNA molecules. 1973 - Cohen and Boyer create first recombinant DNA organisms. 1977 - Karl Illmensee claims to have created mice with only one parent. 1979 - Karl Illmensee makes claim to have cloned three mice. 1983 - Kary B. Mullis develops the polymerase chain reaction technique for rapid DNA synthesis. 1983 - Solter and McGrath fuse a mouse embryo cell with an egg without a nucleus, but fail to clone using their technique. 1984 - Steen Willadsen clones sheep from embryo cells

1985 - Steen Willadsen clones sheep from embryo cells. Steen Willadsen joins Grenad Genetics to commercially clone cattle. 1986 - Steen Willadsen clones cattle from differentiated cells. 1986 - First, Prather, and Eyestone clone a cow from embryo cells. 1990 - Human Genome Project begins...
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