Animal Feed and Feeding: Lecture Notes

Topics: Amino acid, Nutrition, Fatty acid Pages: 82 (8283 words) Published: November 29, 2013
UNIVERSITY OF MALAWI
BUNDA COLLEGE

FEEDS AND FEEDING (ANS 321) 2012
LECTURE NOTES.

Raphael Woyera Banda (AGR/09/14),
Bunda College,
P.O Box 219,
Lilongwe.

FEEDS AND FEEDING (ANS–321) - 2012.
Animals are kept for a purpose and must benefit the one keeping them. The benefit may be; -

The animal itself (draft, entertainment and prestige) or

-

The products from the animals for instance milk, meat or hides.

Animal husbandly involves;
-

Animal health,

-

Animal breeding,( improvement of the genotype))

-

Animal nutrition and

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General animal management.

AIMS OF STUDYING FEEDS AND FEEDING (AS A COURSE)
-

To enable students learn and apply knowledge and skills on how to feed various types and classes of animals.

COURSE OBJECTIVES.
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Know and list the characteristics of different types of commonly used animal feed stuffs,

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Identify different types of animal feeds,

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Know and describe nutrient requirement of different species and classes of livestock,

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Formulate and balance ration for livestock and poultry,

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Make hay and silage,

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Conduct simple processing of feedstuff,

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Feed different types of animals.

Raphael S Banda 2012 production. All rights reserved. Feeds and feeding lecture notes

2

TERMS AND DEFINITIONS.
1.

FEED.
Feed is defined as any material which when ingested by an animal is capable of being transformed into body elements of the animal.
The components of the feed that are capable being transformed into body elements of the animal are known as NUTRIENTS.
Feed may also be defined as the carrier of nutrients and potential energy in a ration.

NOTE.
-

No feed has been found to be nutritionally complete for or balanced to the needs of a given animal (except milk at early stage of life or an egg for the embryo) thus after weaning no feed can be nutritionally complete.

-

Many feeds contain undesirable substances that either
o

Interfere with availability of nutrients to the animal (protease inhibitors and HCN) or

o

Are toxic to the animal (aflatoxins). (may be changed by feed technology from toxic to non – toxic),

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Feed is the term used for animal and food is the term used for human beings.

2.

FEEDING STUFF OR FEEDSTUFF.

-

These terms are synonymous with feed or food or fodder (foliage of plant origin) although feeding stuff or feedstuff is a broad term covering all materials included in the diet because of their nutritional properties.

Feeding stuff or feedstuffs include natural feed of animal origin, synthetic and other pure nutrients which are added to the natural feed.

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Feeding stuff or feedstuff is any product of animal origin or artificially prepared which when properly used has nutritional value in the diet.

3.

NUTRIENT.

-

Nutrient is matter (anything which occupies space) that function in the body of animals or plants and maybe used for energy.

Raphael S Banda 2012 production. All rights reserved. Feeds and feeding lecture notes

3

-

A nutrient may also be described as any feed or feed constituent or a group of the same general chemical composition or a pure chemical compound that aids in support of animals or plant life.

NOTE.
-

Energy is not a nutrient (defined as the ability to do work and therefore cannot be a nutrient which is defined as a matter).

-

Only nutrients are essential. What an animal eats in terms of the product actually consumed is fundamentally as much less important than the quantity and assortment of the nutrients furnished by the rations made available to the animal.

4.

NUTRITION.

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This is the science that involves various chemical and physiological activities which transform feed elements into body elements (nutrients).

5.

RATION AND DIET.

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There is no difference between the two terms,

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A ration is a 24 hours allowance of a feed or mixtures of feeding stuff or...
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