Ancient History Notes

Topics: Akhenaten, Tutankhamun, Karnak Pages: 18 (5506 words) Published: August 28, 2013
Pharaoh: Amenhotep III

Building Program: He began his building program very early in his reign. The Temple of Amen at Luxor; The colonnade and forecourt of this temple has been acclaimed by art historians as being the most impressive achievement of Egyptians temple architecture. The third Pylons at Karnak He demolished the shrines and monuments of earlier pharaohs, including some of his father’s, and used the rubble to fill his new pylon. This carried a lengthy inscription praising himself and Amen. On the southern side of the temple he built a smaller pylon and set in front of it two colossal statues of himself. Malkata Palace; 4 loosely connected palaces, residential apartments, courtyards and gardens, a small temple of Amen and villages for palace workers. Mortuary Temple built to house the funeral service of the Pharaoh’s spirit, it was dedicated to the Aten. In front of the temple, Amenhotep III constructed two huge statues of himself over 16 metres tall, known as the Colossi of Memnon.

Religious Programs:
By the time Amenhotep III came to the throne, the cult of Amun of Thebes had already risen to a position of political prominence. Amen; main god of the new kingdom, and wars of conquest were fought in his name. The victory spoils were dedicated to his temples, which were administered by the powerful Amen priesthood. Amun-Re was given equal credit with the pharaoh for success in battle. In the last decade of his reign, Amenhotep III was depicted as a god. It was customary for pharaoh’s to be shown as gods in the afterlife, it was unusual that Amenhotep was shown as a god when he was still alive. Heb-Sed Festivals

Preparations were extensive, with solar courts being added to many of Amenhotep’s major temples. His first Heb-Sed festival marked a change in the way he was represented in reliefs and sculptures. He was now being depicted as youthful and idealized in order to emphasise his divine status.

Military Campaigns:
evidence of the campaign in Nubia,
It is unlikely that Amenhotep’s campaign in Nubia added any new territory to the Egyptian empire. The Amarna Letters suggest that relations between Amenhotep and King of Mitannia was close, Amenhotep marrying sevral of their princesses. The only trouble spot was in Northern Syria, where Egypt had never established firm control. ( Control of Syria meant control of great wealth. A stela cut into the rock near the first cataract records that there had been a revolt in Nubia during the 5th year of his reign and that he had invaded the country to crush the rebels.

Queen Tiy
a young woman of non-royal birth.
Tiy had at least seven children to Amenhotep III, always retained her status. In all commemorative scarabs she is named the Great Royal Wife. Her power is indicated in several ways. She is frequently shown beside the pharaoh as the same size. She is shown with kings attributes, in the tomb of her steward, Kheruef, she is shown as a sphinx, trampling. The Amarna letters suggest that Tiy played an active role in diplomatic affairs. Foreign rulers wrote directly to her, sometimes simply to ask her to support their requests for gold and other treasures. When Amenhotep died, King Tushratta of Mitanni wrote to Tiy. His letters show his respect for her and indicate the important role she played in relations between the two kings. Tiy outlived her husband and lived well into the reign of her son Akhenaten.

Changes took place, some officials inherited their positions, but increasingly officials were appointed from the army, perhaps in an attempt to find sutitable occupations for ambitious military men, denied their usual pursuits in a time of peace, perhaps an attempt to curb the increasing power og Theban officals, as many of his officicals came from Memphis. Prominent Official – Amenhotep, Son Of Hapu – Priest of Amun-Re, scribe of recruits, overseer of all the king’s works.

Forigen Contacts/Policies:
Amenhotep’s role was...
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