After students complete this chapter and the related course work, they will understand the need for proper airway management, including recognizing and measuring adequate and inadequate breathing, maintaining an open airway, and providing artificial ventilation. Students will be able to demonstrate basic competency in applying these concepts to appropriate care through the use of airway adjuncts, suction equipment, oxygen equipment and delivery systems, pulse oximetry, CPAP, and resuscitation devices. They will also understand various types of advanced airway devices, including single-lumen airways, multilumen airways, and supraglottic devices, and will learn the steps for their insertion. Finally, they will learn the concepts of acid-base balance and their relevance in maintaining homeostasis in the body, as well as pathologic conditions resulting when this balance is not maintained.
Education Standard Competencies
Airway Management, Respiration, and Artificial Ventilation
Applies knowledge (fundamental depth, foundational breadth) of upper airway anatomy and physiology to patient assessment and management in order to assure a patent airway, adequate mechanical ventilation, and respiration for patients of all ages.
Techniques of assuring a patent airway
Anatomy of the respiratory system
Physiology and pathophysiology of respiration
• Pulmonary ventilation
Assessment and management of adequate and inadequate respiration
Supplemental oxygen therapy
Assessment and management of adequate and inadequate ventilation
• Artificial ventilation
• Minute ventilation
• Alveolar ventilation
• Effect of artificial ventilation on cardiac output
Applies comprehensive knowledge of the pathophysiology of respiration and perfusion to patient assessment and management.
Describe the major structures of the respiratory system.
Discuss the physiology of breathing.
Discuss the four forms of acid/base imbalance: respiratory acidosis, respiratory alkalosis, metabolic acidosis, and metabolic alkalosis.
Give the signs of adequate breathing.
Give the signs of inadequate breathing.
Describe the assessment and care of a patient with apnea.
Understand how to assess for adequate and inadequate respiration, including the use of pulse oximetry.
Understand how to assess for a patent airway.
Describe how to perform the head tilt–chin lift maneuver.
Describe how to perform the jaw-thrust maneuver.
Explain how to measure and insert an oropharyngeal (oral) airway.
Describe how to measure and insert a nasopharyngeal (nasal) airway.
Understand the importance and techniques of suctioning.
Explain the importance in performing tracheobronchial suctioning.
Explain the use of the recovery position to maintain a clear airway.
Describe the importance of giving supplemental oxygen to patients who are hypoxic.
Understand the basics of how oxygen is stored and the various hazards associated with its use.
Describe the use of a nonrebreathing mask, state the oxygen flow requirements for its use.
Understand the indications for using a nasal cannula rather than a nonrebreathing face mask.
Describe the indications for use of a humidifier during supplemental oxygen therapy.
Explain the steps to take to perform mouth-to-mouth or mouth-to-mask ventilation.
Describe the use of a one-, two-person bag-mask device .
Describe the signs...
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