* Long Reign of Louis XIV (1643-1715)
Cardinal Jules Mazarin- student of Cardinal Richelieu and the chief minister of Anne of Austria; stooped rebellions of peasants and city-dwellers to strengthen the authority of the monarchy. Anne of Austria- mother of Louis XIV, ruled for him because he was 5 years old then. Divine Right- the power of a king came from God and no subject will dare to question it. * It is God who establishes kings… Princes thus act as ministers of God and [are] His lieutenants on earth. It is through them that He rules… That is why… the royal throne is not the throne of a man but the throne of God Himself…. It appears from this that the person of kings is sacred, and to move against them is sacrilege… ( Bishop Jacques Benigne Boussuet)
“L’etat, c’est moi”- The sate- it is I- King Louis XIV of France
“Sun King”- Louis XIV wanted to call himself as ‘sun king’ comparing himself to the Greek god Apollo, which gives life to all things and god of peace and arts.
Versailles- in 1682, the Royal Court moved to Versailles palace, it took more than 2o years to build it. It is the symbol of the absolute monarchy in France.
Jean Baptiste Colbert- finance minister of Louis XIV, a strong advocate of mercantilism policy in France; established French colonies to compete with the leading trading countries; invited foreign artisans to teach French workers.
Huguenots- French Protestants who were persecuted by Louis XIV because of non-tolerance of religions. Edict of Nantes- granted the Huguenots a large measure of religious freedom, equal treatment under the law, and equal opportunity to hold positions in the government; signed by Henry IV but repealed by Louis XIV. War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1713)- the most destructive war when Louis XIV’s policies threaten the balance of powers in Europe; often called as the First World War because most of the leading countries in Europe were involved. Phillip of Anjou- the successor of the Hapsburg king in 1700, grandson of Louis XIV. Peace of Utrecht- composed of several treaties signed in 1713 and 1714; it attempted to restore the balance of power in Europe. 1715- Louis XIV died. He reigned for 72 years. France faced terrible socio-economic problems that led to a revolution; he was succeeded by Louis XV.
Parliament Gains Power in France
Wars of Roses- the English Royal family split into two- the house of York symbol for white roses and house of Lancaster symbol for red roses. Henry Tudor- fought for the house of Lancaster, killed King Richard III, son of the duke of York, and became Henry VII, thus the beginning of the Tudor Dynasty in England. Henry VIII- successor of the Tudor dynasty, strengthened the authority of the Crown by breaking with the Pope and becoming the Head of the English Church. Elizabeth I- daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. Her 45-year reign was one of England’s greatest ages.
* Strengthening the position of Anglican Church
* England’s trading industry was improved
* Defeated the invincible Armada (1558)
* Beginning of English colonization of America
* Flowering of English literature
* Awakening the English pride in England’s glorious destiny. ( “Good Queen Bess”) Mary, Queen of Scots- ( Mary Stuart); Elizabeth’s cousin and challenged her right to be the queen of England. Eventually, Elizabeth reluctantly ordered Mary’s execution after knowing that Mary plotted dangers against her. James I- successor of Elizabeth I, son of Mary Stuart; claimed to rule by divine right but in constant struggle with the Parliament. Charles I- son of James I, in his regime, tensions between parliament and the monarch intensified. The conflict centred on two issues- taxes and religion. Petition of Right- foundation of English liberty limited the power of the king and set forth specific rights: 1. The monarch could not collect taxes without Parliament’s consent 2. Civilians could not be forced to provide food and shelter for soldiers 3. Military law could not be imposed in time of peace
4. No person could be imprisoned except upon a specific charge Puritans- English Protestants wanted to “purify” the Church of England by eliminating what they considered to be Roman Catholic practices; they criticized wearing of rich robes by the clergy, ornamentation in churches, elaborate rituals, and kneeling at the communion. “King James Version”- a new English translation of Bible; published in 1611; sponsored by James I. William Laud- Archbishop of Canterbury, enforced harsh law against the Puritans Short Parliament- it was dissolved 3 weeks after Charles I called a meeting of Parliament to ask money that will be used to fight Scots in Lowlands because they revolted against Charles’ imposed Anglican worship. Long Parliament (1640-1653)- when Charles called a meeting again, this time Parliament places more limits on monarch’s power. Some of the changes are: (1) regular sessions; (2) abolish special court- Star Chamber; (3) raise tax with Parliament’s consent Cavaliers- the royalists during the English civil war, the Anglicans, Catholics, most of the members of the House of the Commons Roundheads- the Puritans, Parliament, middle-class townspeople Oliver Cromwell- a Puritan general that lead the parliamentary forces, took the title “Lord Protector.” In 1657, the Parliament offered him as king of England but he refused. He ruled England, Scotland and Ireland until his death in 1658. He ordered the execution of Charles I in 1649 for treason. Restoration Period- (1660-1685) the monarchs ruled again in England Charles II- son of Charles I, returned to the throne; known as the “Merry Monarch” James II- Catholic brother of Charles II, inherited his throne, lack of grace in leadership Glorious Revolution- establishing Parliament’s supremacy over the English monarchs Mary and William of Orange- declared the rulers of England by the Parliament.