Week 1&2 - Chapter 1 – Conceptual Issues in Abnormal Psychology Mental illness: Severe abnormal thoughts, behaviours and feelings cause by a physical illness Affect: Experience of feeling or emotion Dementia: Cognitive disorder in which a gradual decline of intellectual functioning occurs Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT): Treatment for mood disorders that involves the induction of a brain seizure by passing electrical current through the patient’s brain while they are anesthetised Psychosurgery: Biological treatment (such as lobotamy0 for a psychological disorder in which a neurosurgeon attempts to destroy small areas of the brain thought to be involved in producing the patients symptoms Prefrontal cortex: Region at the front of the brain important in language, emotional expression, the planning and producing of new ideas, and the mediation of social interactions Biological approach: Theories that explain abnormal behaviours in terms of a biological dysfunction (medical approach) Enlarged ventricles: Fluid-filled spaces in the brain that are larger than the normal and suggest a deterioration in brain tissue Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRIs): Class of antidepressant drugs (such as fluroxetine) that inhibit the reuptake of serotonin Psychopharmacological treatment: The use of drugs to treat psychological disturbances Psychoanalysis: Form of treatment pioneered by Freud that entails alleviating the unconscious conflicts driving psychological symptoms by helping the patient gain insight into his/her conflicts through techniques such as dream analysis and free association Psychological approaches: Theories that explain abnormality in terms of psychological factors such as disturbed personality, behaviour and ways of thinking Unconscious: In psychoanalytic theory, the part of the personality of which the conscious ego in unaware. Id: In psychodynamic theory, most primitive part of the unconscious; consists of drives and impulses seeking immediate gratification Ego: Part of the psyche that channels libido acceptable to the super ego and within the constraints of reality Super ego: Part of the unconscious that consists of the absolute moral standards internalised from one’s parents and the wider society during childhood Libido: Psychial energy within the id Pleasure principle: Drive to maximise pleasure and minimise pain and quickly as possible
Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)
Reality principle: Idea that the ego seeks to satisfy ones needs within the constraints of reality rather than following the abandon of the pleasure principle Defence mechanisms: In traditional psychoanalytic theory, strategies (such as repression or reaction formation) the ego uses to disguise or transform unacceptable, unconscious wishes or impulses Neurosis: Set of maladaptive symptoms caused by unconscious conflict and its associated anxiety Psychosis: State involving a loss of contact with reality in which the individual experiences symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations Psychodynamic theories: Theories developed by Freud’s followers but usually differing somewhat from Freud’s original psychoanalytic theory Case study method: Research method in which single individuals are studies in detail. Control groups: Group of participants in an experimental study whose experience is the same as that of the experimental group in all ways expect that they do not receive the key manipulation; this allows for the effect of the experimental manipulation to be determined. Double-blind experiments: Experimental study in which both the researchers and the participants are unaware of which experimental condition the participants are in so as to reduce demand characteristics. Validity: In psych testing, degree to which an instrument actually measures what it is intended to measure. In diagnosis, the degree to which diagnostic criteria accurately define the features of disorders....
Please join StudyMode to read the full document