Its not just about salivating dogs!
1. Research method- Pavlov chose food as the UCS. He then needed to find a neural stimulus that was completely unrelated to food, he chose the sound of a metronome. Over several trials, the dog was exposed to the metronome ticking, then receiving food immediately. Pavlov repeated this using different UCS and CS as well. 2. Results- The sound of the metronome had acquired the property of stimulating salivary secretion. 3. Application- In the early 1970’s, studies were conducted that attempted to apply Pavlovian conditioning techniques to solve the problem of the killing of sheep by coyotes and wolves without the need for killing the predators.
Little emotional Albert
1. Research method- In order to see if Albert was afraid of certain stimuli, he was presented with a white rat, a rabbit, a monkey, a dog, masks with and without hair, and white cotton wool. These objects produced no fear, they were known as neutral stimuli. They put a steel bar four feet behind Albert, and struck it, seeing if the noise would create fear. The researchers then presented Albert with the white rat and frightening noise at the same time. 2. Results- Over time, Albert reacted with extreme fear to the white rat alone. He cried, turned away, and crawled away extremely fast. 3. Application- One study examined the facial expressions of emotion of infants. It studied infants expressions at a young age to see if they were the same within different cultures. Knock Wood!
1. Research method- Eight pigeons were fed less than their normal daily amount for several days. Each pigeon was placed alone in the experimental cage for a few minutes each day and left to do whatever pigeons do. During this time, reinforcement was being delivered automatically every fifteen seconds. 2. Results- The pigeons behaved as if a certain action would produce food, they became ‘superstitious.’ 3. Application- A study examined the role of...
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