Фонетика

Topics: Vowel, Phonology, Phoneme Pages: 55 (19594 words) Published: May 28, 2014


Лекции по теоретической фонетике Примерные вопросы для контроля знаний 1. Phonetics as a branch of linguistics. Phonetics and other disciplines. Applications of phonetics. 2. Branches of phonetics.

3. Aspects of the sound matter of language.
4. Components of the phonetic system of language.
5. National and regional pronunciation variants in English.
6. British and American pronunciation models.
7. Most distinctive features of BBC English and Network English. 8. The articulatory classification of English vowels.
9. The articulatory classification of English consonants.
10. Phoneme as many-sided dialectic unity of language. Types of allophones. Distinctive and irrelevant features of the phoneme. 11. Main phonological schools.
12. The system of vowel phonemes in English. Problem of diphthongs. 13. The system of consonant phonemes in English. Problem of affricates. 14. Modifications of English consonants and vowels in speech. 15. Alternations of speech sounds in English.

16. Theories on syllable division and formation.
17. The structure and functions of syllable in English.
18. Word stress in English.
19. Intonation and prosody: definition, functions, components, spheres of application. 20. The structure of English tone-group.
21. The phonological level of intonation.
22. Methods of phonetic analysis.
23. Phonostylistics. Types and styles of pronunciation in English. 24. Phonetics of the spoken discourse.
Lecture 1
Introduction
Outline
1. Phonetics as a branch of linguistics
2. Aspects and units of phonetics
3. Branches of phonetics
4. Methods of phonetic analysis
1. Phonetics as a branch of linguistics
We begin our study of language by examining the inventory, structure and functions of the speech sounds. This branch of linguistics is called phonetics. Phonetics is an independent branch of linguistics like lexicology or grammar. These linguistic sciences study language from three different points of view. Lexicology deals with the vocabulary of language, with the origin and development of words, with their meaning and word building. Grammar defines the rules governing the modification of words and the combination of words into sentences. Phonetics studies the outer form of language; its sound matter. The phonetician investigates the phonemes and their allophones, the syllabic structure the distribution of stress, and intonation. He is interested in the sounds that are produced by the human speech-organs insofar as these sounds have a role in language. Let us refer to this limited range of sounds as the phonic medium and to individual sounds within that range as speech-sounds. We may now define phonetics as the study of the phonic medium. Phonetics is the study of the way humans make, transmit, and receive speech sounds. Phonetics occupies itself with the study of the ways in which the sounds are organized into a system of units and the variation of the units in all types and styles of spoken language. Phonetics is a basic branch of linguistics. Neither linguistic theory nor linguistic practice can do without phonetics. No kind of linguistic study can be made without constant consideration of the material on the expression level. 2. Aspects and units of phonetics Human speech is the result of a highly complicated series of events. Let us consider the speech chain, which may be diagrammed in simplified form like this: Speaker's brain

Speaker's vocal tract
Transmission of sounds
Listener's ear
Listener's brain

through air

1
2
3
4
5
linguistic
articulatory
acoustic
auditory
linguistic
The formation of the concept takes place in the brain of a speaker. This stage may be called psychological. The message formed within the brain is transmitted along the nervous system to the speech organs....
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