Cell membrane Essays & Research Papers

Best Cell membrane Essays

  • Cell Membrane - 748 Words
    2. Draw and completely label a cell membrane. [pic] 4. List and briefly discuss the 5 components of cellular membranes. 1. Phospholipids layer- 2 layers , polar and non polar , polar facing the extracellular fluid and cytoplasm 2. Transmembrane proteins-integral membrane proteins are proteins that expand the membrane 3. Interior protein network-peripheral proteins are in the interior side of the membrane 4. Cell surface markers are glycolipids,...
    748 Words | 3 Pages
  • Cell Membranes - 1084 Words
    Topic 2 – Cell membranes  Reading  Chapter 5  Objectives   Functions of cell membranes The fluid mosaic model The lipid bilayer – phospholipids, glycolipids and sterols Properties of the lipid bilayer  Membrane proteins – the ‘mosaic’ in the model    Solute movements across membranes BIO 1140 – SLIDE 1 http://www.nikonsmallworld.com/gallery/year/2006/id/751 Functions of cell membranes – an overview  Fluid mosaic model    Singer & Nicolson 1972 Fluid lipid molecules in...
    1,084 Words | 17 Pages
  • Cell Membrane - 1869 Words
    The fluid mosaic model of the cell membrane. What is the fluid mosaic model? The fluid mosaic model is a model conceived by S.J. Singer and Garth Nicolson in 1972 to describe the structural features of biological membranes. The membrane is described to be fluid because of its hydrophobic integral components such as lipids and membrane proteins that move laterally or sideways throughout the membrane. That means the membrane is not solid, but more like a 'fluid'. The membrane is depicted as...
    1,869 Words | 7 Pages
  • The Cell Membrane - 754 Words
    The Cell membrane surrounds all living cells and is the most important organelle, there is also a similar plasma membrane that surrounds all the organelles except for the ribosome. The membrane controls how and what substances can move in and out of the cell/organelle The structure of the membrane is often referred to as the “Fluid Mosaic Model”; this is because of the way it is structured It is composed of phospholipids, proteins, and carbohydrates, which are arranged in a fluid...
    754 Words | 3 Pages
  • All Cell membrane Essays

  • Cell Membrane and Membrane Lab Diffusion
    Cell Membrane Transport Cell Membrane Transport Hands-On Labs, Inc. Version 42-0034-00-01 Lab Report Assistant This document is not meant to be a substitute for a formal laboratory report. The Lab Report Assistant is simply a su Premium 609 Words 3 Pages Diffusion and Osmosis of Solutes and Water Across a Membrane Diffusion and Osmosis of Solutes and Water Across a Membrane Brittany Bacallao Nova Southeastern University Abstract: This experiment gave a...
    447 Words | 2 Pages
  • Cell Membranes and Transport - 1098 Words
    Cell Membranes and Transport Introduction: Beetroot cells contain a red pigment, called betalains, which is stored in the vacuole of the plant cells. This is to prevent the pigment leaking out of the cell. [3] The outer layer of the cell is also surrounded by a membrane, this also helps the pigment stay inside the cell. Normally the pigments cannot pass through the membranes but they leak out when the beetroot is cooked. [1] The aim of this experiment was to use beetroot to examine the...
    1,098 Words | 4 Pages
  • Cell Membrane And Organelle Webquest1
    Cell Membrane and Organelle Webquest Name Yamani Woody Using the websites listed, answer the following questions. Website #1: http://www.usd.edu/~bgoodman/Membrane.htm http://www.biologymad.com/cells/cellmembrane.htm 1. What invention came along that enabled us to better see the cell membrane? Electron Microscope 2. What are the two parts (list the first two listed) of the cell membrane? Phospholipids and proteins 3. What is one of the cell membrane’s jobs? It controls how substances...
    726 Words | 3 Pages
  • Cell Membrane Transport - 3349 Words
    Introduction In this Lab the students dealt with Osmosis, movement of water molecule or solvent from a high concentration to a low concentration, through selective permeability, a protective barrier that provide some particle the 'direct' passage in and out of the plasma membrane ( Lacerda L.2011) Allowing some molecules enter and exit the cell membrane, to create a balance in concentration inside and outside of the cell, by doing so the cell often become hypotonic, where the...
    3,349 Words | 12 Pages
  • Cell Membrane Finished - 2048 Words
    Cell Membrane The Cell Membrane- The cell membrane is a semi-permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm of a cell; the cell membrane is made up of phospholipids, proteins and carbohydrates. Its function is to protect the integrity of the interior of the cell allowing certain substances into the cell, while keeping other substances out. The phospholipids form a thin, flexible sheet while the proteins float in the phospholipid sheet like an ice berg, and the carbohydrates extend out from...
    2,048 Words | 6 Pages
  • Cell Membrane Transport - 609 Words
    Cell Membrane Transport Hands-On Labs, Inc. Version 42-0034-00-01 Lab Report Assistant This document is not meant to be a substitute for a formal laboratory report. The Lab Report Assistant is simply a summary of the experiment’s questions, diagrams if needed, and data tables that should be addressed in a formal lab report. The intent is to facilitate students’ writing of lab reports by providing this...
    609 Words | 3 Pages
  • Cell Membranes and Temperature - 921 Words
    Biology A - Assignment 1: Cell Membranes and Temperature Background Theory Beetroot contains betalain pigments within it’s vacuole, which gives it it’s purple-red colour, it’s this pigment which leaks out as the beetroot is heated and the cells membrane begins to break down. The practicals aim is to show the effect of temperature on the cell membrane by observing the colour change of the water the beetroot was placed in. The cell membrane is important as it controls the substances enters...
    921 Words | 4 Pages
  • Cell Membrane Transport - 1865 Words
    Cell Membrane Transport The purposes for these experiments is to be able to understand osmosis and its relationship to tonicity of solutions, and the transportation of molecules across cell membranes. It's also used to understand, and how temperature affects diffusion. You also learn how to test for presences of starches and sugars in solutions. In the first exercise I will be testing for diffusion through an artificial membranes. This one has forty five steps to it. I will not go...
    1,865 Words | 5 Pages
  • History of Cell Membrane - 424 Words
    In the early stages of the twentieth century, little was known about cell membranes. Until the early 1950s, the biological cell membrane was rarely mentioned in scientific literature. It was recognised that something was probably there, but hardly anything about it was known. Considering the lack of technical equipment available a century ago, scientists such as Charles Overton and Edwin Gorter were not only exploring new territory in looking at the properties of cell membranes, but laying the...
    424 Words | 2 Pages
  • Effects of Temperature on Cell Membranes
    Investigating the effect of temperature on plant cell membranes The purpose of this activity is: • to practise experimental and investigative skills • to investigate the effect of temperature on cell membrane structures Procedure SAFETY: Always carry scalpels clasped to a tile and with the tip pointing away from you. Beetroot cells contain pigments called betalains that give the tissue its dark purple-red colour. The pigment is contained in the cell vacuole. Investigation...
    804 Words | 3 Pages
  • Experiment on Cell Membrane - 1547 Words
    Name: Jenny Rose A. Semaning Date Due: July 6, 2012 Co-workers: Adelfa Masculino Date Performed: June 29, 2012 Farrah Belle Barredo Experiment 2 The Cell Membrane Abstract The boundary between any cell and its environment is the plasma membrane, composed of a matrix of phospholipid molecules along with a number of different kinds of proteins. Membranes have different properties and a variety of functions, in large part determined by the specific proteins within...
    1,547 Words | 5 Pages
  • Effect of Temperature on Cell Membrane
    Introduction To determine the effects of stressful experimental treatments on living membranes we are going to examine how fresh beets roots react when they are exposed to different temperatures. Membranes are an important feature of plant cells and they act as a barrier that separates the interior of the cell from the external environment (Campbell 133). They organize specific chemicals and reactions into specific compartments within the cell. Generally, cell membranes consist of...
    1,674 Words | 5 Pages
  • Cell Membranes and Temperature - 901 Words
    Aim The Aim of this practical was to observe what effect temperature had on the permeability of the cell membrane. Introduction Located within the vacuole of beetroot cells is a red pigment call Betalains. Typically these pigments are contained within the cell vacuole by the tonoplast (vacuole membrane), however When beetroot is heated these red pigments escape the vacuole. This experiment aims to explore the effect of temperature on the permeability of the cell membranes...
    901 Words | 4 Pages
  • Cell Membrane Permeability - 3426 Words
    Biology: Practical Sonal Khirwadkar De Lisle School An Investigation to determine the effect of temperature on cell membrane permeability Aim: This investigation involves the estimation of the extent to which a red pigment present in the cell sap of beetroot storage tissue, passes out in defined circumstances, when the tissue is immersed for a given time in water, at various temperatures. Background Knowledge: Molecular Structure of the Cell (Plasma) Membrane: The cell membrane is actually a...
    3,426 Words | 13 Pages
  • Cell Membrane and Beetroot - 2545 Words
    Title : The effect of temperature on beetroot’s cells membrane Objective : To use beetroot to investigate the effect of temperature on cell membranes andrelate the effect observed to the membrane’s structure and properties Introduction : Beetroot Beetroot is one of many type of beets known as Beta Vulgaris.It can be used in cooking and drinking as it is one of the source of vitamins, minerals, nutrients and antioxidant as well including magnesium, potassium, sodium and vitamin C and...
    2,545 Words | 8 Pages
  • Cell Membrane Essay - 457 Words
    All living cells have a cell membrane and it is probably the most important organelle of a cell. The cell membrane is composed of a phospholipid, proteins and carbohydrates. The phospholipids are arranged in a bilayer with the hydrophilic ends facing out and the hydrophobic ends facing the inside of bilayer. Membranes can contain phospholipids with different fatty acids which affects the strength and flexibility of the membrane. There are two different proteins in cell membranes. One is a...
    457 Words | 2 Pages
  • Beet Cell Membrane Lab
    Title: The effect on temperature on beet cell membranes. Introduction A cell membrane or plasma membrane is very important in protecting cells. A cell membrane is a thin layer that protects the cells. The membrane is filled with lipids and proteins. The cell membrane protects the cell from ions and molecules that enter and exit the cells. I hypothesize that at -5 degrees Celsius, the color intensity will be a 1. I hypothesize that at 5 degrees Celsius, the color intensity will be a...
    805 Words | 2 Pages
  • Cell Membrane Lab Report
     BioLab3 Cell Membranes Lab Report Student Name: I. Diffusion Define the following terms. Solvent Solute Solution. Diffusion Concentration gradient Dynamic equilibrium EXERCISE 1 – Factors influencing rate of diffusion Predict how molecule size and temperature will affect the outcome of this experiment. Record the data from the information in the lab. Potassium Permanganate R.T. Methylene Blue R.T. Time (min)...
    980 Words | 9 Pages
  • Cell Membrane Lab - 914 Words
    Lab #1: Cell Membrane Prepared for Gary V. Lawrence Biology 0983 By Zane Jeffels Partners: Lily Juno, Huynh, and Lin Yan Sun Preformed: October 11th, 2010 Due: October 25th, 2010 King Edward Campus- Rm. 3275 Vancouver Community College Abstract The purpose of this lab was to determine if hemolysis would occur, and how long it would take to occur to red blood cells when blood suspension is introduced to solutions prepared at different...
    914 Words | 4 Pages
  • Cell Membrane and Permeability - 472 Words
    Cell Membrane Permeability and Osmosis Experiment 3 Objectives: To demonstrate the mechanism involved in Osmosis; To demonstrate the tonicity of solutions by subjecting the cells to different concentration of solute. To view, under the microscope, any change in the shape and volume of the cells after subjecting them to different concentrations of solutes; To demonstrate the permeability of cell membrane by subjecting the cells to different solutes; To demonstrate the mechanism involved in...
    472 Words | 2 Pages
  • cell membrane structure - 298 Words
    Cell Membrane Structure Phospholipids are arranged in to layers, called the bilayer. They only have 2 fatty acids, this is because the third fatty acid is replaced by a negatively charged phosphate group. The phosphate heads are polar, in other words attracted to water, therefore they are hydrophilic. The lipid tails are non-popular as they’re not attracted to water and therefore known as hydrophobic. When phospholipids are added to the water, they rearrange themselves so that the hydrophilic...
    298 Words | 1 Page
  • Structure and Function of the Cell Membrane
    The cell membrane is made up of fats, proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates, and is a permeable structure. However, this permeation is very discerning because it only lets certain things pass through it. The cell membrane has a layer of phospholipids with hydrophobic ends and hydrophilic tops. The “tails” are made out of phosphate, while the “heads” are made up of two strings of fatty acids. There are two layers of these phospholipids, called the “bilayer”, and the tips of each phospholipid are...
    306 Words | 1 Page
  • Membranes: Cell Membrane and Purple Dark Essay Example
    Cell Membranes and Transport Hands-On Labs, Inc. Version 42-0033-00-01 Lab Report Assistant This document is not meant to be a substitute for a formal laboratory report. The Lab Report Assistant is simply a summary of the experiment’s questions, diagrams if needed, and data tables that should be addressed in a formal lab report. The intent is to facilitate students’ writing of lab reports by...
    1,161 Words | 5 Pages
  • The Effect of Temperature on Beetroot Cell Membranes
    The effect of temperature on the cell membranes of beetroot cells and amount of pigment released. Apparatus • Corer size 4 • White tile • A Beetroot • Automatic Water Bath • Segregated knife • A thermometer • Stopwatch Method: • First take the white tile and the corer. Then collect a cylinder of beetroot by pushing the corer into the beetroot and withdrawing it. The cylinder remains inside the corer- so push it out with the end of a pencil. • Collect 3...
    1,207 Words | 5 Pages
  • Water Flow Across Cell Membranes
    WATER FLOW ACROSS CELL MEMBRANES pg. 1 Lab Report 1 Water Flow Across Semi-Permeable Membranes WATER FLOW ACROSS CELL MEMBRANES pg.2 WATER FLOW ACROSS CELL MEMBRANES The movement of water across semi-permeable membranes as it relates to the laws of thermodynamics and energy flow with the...
    1,529 Words | 6 Pages
  • Beetroot Cell Membrane Permeability Experiment
    Practical Assessment Planning AIM Beetroot cells contain a red pigment, which is stored in the cell vacuole and a vacuole membrane to prevent this leaking out of the cell surrounds it. The outer of the cell is also surrounded by a membrane, which again helps contain the pigment inside the cell. In this experiment I aim to find out the relationship between the leakage of red pigment from a beetroot cell and the surface area. To do this successfully I will need to alter the surface area...
    1,463 Words | 6 Pages
  • Effects of Temperature and Solvents on the Cell Membrane
    ell SOTM LAB: B14 12/99 I. TEACHER NOTES & GUIDELINES Title of Lab: Effects of Temperature and Solvents on the Cell Membrane Developers of Lab: Adapted by James Kirby JD726, Jennifer Mortellaro JD449, and James Prockup JD575 from a publication by the Department of Biological Sciences at Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI Overview of Lab: Description: The purpose of this lab is to illustrate the effects that temperature and solvents have on the...
    1,444 Words | 7 Pages
  • The Effect of Temperature on Beet Cell Membranes
    The effect of temperature on beet cell membranes Introduction: A cell membrane of a beet (Beta Vulgaris) is made up of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins and cholesterols. The membrane is responsible for organizing the cell, protecting it from the exterior environment, as well as responsible for regulating what goes in and out of the cell though it’s protein channels and “selectively permeable” bilayer. (Campbell, Reece, Taylor & Simon, 2006, p. 79-80) When this membrane is...
    1,226 Words | 3 Pages
  • The Different Cell Membrane Transport Mechanisms
    The different cell membrane transport mechanisms The cell membrane is referred to as a ‘fluid mosaic model’ because the protein part within the cell membrane used to be though of as an even layer spread over the outside and the inside of the phospholipid. Now we are starting to think that it is spread unevenly, more like a mosaic than a layer. The phospholipid part of the cell membrane is fluid; this means that its molecules are constantly moving about. Through the molecules constantly...
    953 Words | 3 Pages
  • Metabolism: Cell Membrane and Protein Synthesis
    What broad term covers all chemical reactions that occur within the body cells? Metabolism Lungs carry out an excretory function. Ture Which body cavity protects the central nervous system? dorsal Correct What is the serous membrane that covers the intestines called? peritoneum chp 2 Kinetic energy is energy in action, while potential energy is stored energy. Structurally variant atoms, which have the same number of protons (and electrons), but differ in the...
    1,315 Words | 7 Pages
  • The Effect of Temperature on the Permeability of Cell Membranes
    The effect of temperature on the permeability of cell membranes Introduction For my coursework, I intend to assess how temperature affects the plasma membrane of a cell. For this I will use the cell of a beetroot. Background What is a cell membrane? The cell membrane, also called the plasma membrane is a semipermeable lipid bilayer which is the surface of all cells that surrounds the cytoplasm. The membrane is called a bilayer as it has a double layer of phospholipids. Within the cell...
    1,889 Words | 7 Pages
  • The Effect of Temperature on Beet Cell Membranes
    Mayra Guadalupe October 29, 2012 The effect of temperature on beet cell membranes Introduction: Cell membrane is the plasma like substance that separates different organelles and molecules within an organism. The cell membranes vital function is to permit passage of protein and enzymes through their wall. Red beets, also known as Beta Vulgaris has a red pigment that is located in its large central vacuoles. It is my hypothesis that if the cell membrane is to experience extreme...
    759 Words | 3 Pages
  • The Effects of Temperature on Beetroot Cell Membranes
    Effects of Temperature on Beetroot Cell Membranes Background Information: A cell membranes is a thin structure that surrounds the whole cell. It contains the cytoplasm of a cell. The cell membrane is made up of hydrophilic region and a hydrophobic region. The hydrophilic region likes water, it is on the outside of the cell, the hydrophobic region is the inside of the cell where its protected from H2O. The cell membrane’s outer surface lets larger molecules into the cell. The inner surface...
    2,567 Words | 8 Pages
  • Effect of Temperature on Permeability of Cell Membrane
    To investigate the effect of variation in temperature on the permeability of cell membranes using fresh beetroot Aims In this investigation, you will subject fresh, washed beetroot discs to different temperatures to investigate the effect of temperature on the permeability of the plasma membrane. Overview The beetroot discs will be placed in distilled water at different temperatures. You will compare the intensity of the beetroot pigment that has leaked out from the cells subjectively and...
    1,515 Words | 7 Pages
  • tonicity on cell membrane lab report
    Effects of Tonicity on Cell Membrane Abstract The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effects of tonicity on a cell membrane using red blood cells, potato strips and three unknown solutions (A, B, C). First three slides were prepared containing RBC’s and unknown solutions A, B and C. A control slide was prepared only using RBC’s. After observing each slide under the microscope it was determined that unknown solution A was hypertonic because the RBC appeared to have shrunk....
    2,157 Words | 6 Pages
  • The effect of temperature on the cell membrane of a beetroot.
    Planning Aim In this experiment I will be testing the effect of temperature on the plasma membrane of a beetroot. I will do this by measuring the percentage light transmission using a spectrophotometer. Once I have obtained my results, I will justify them using scientific knowledge explaining what I have observed whilst carrying out the experiment. Factors to be controlled "« The pH concentration "« Regular use of distilled water "« Ensuring that the surface area of each piece of beetroot...
    2,452 Words | 13 Pages
  • Biology: Cell Membrane and Test Tube
    EXPERIMENT ONE- BIOLOGY MODEL Answers TO DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF CHEMICALS AND TEMPERATURE ON MEMBRANE DESTRUCTION AND PERMEABILITY IN BEETROOT (Beta vulgaris) Introduction The cell membrane is made up primarily of phospholipids and proteins which contribute to its selectively permeable nature. The function and permeability of the cell membrane depends on its intact structure. When destroyed, the permeability of the cell membrane is disrupted causing cellular contents to leak out. The...
    1,164 Words | 6 Pages
  • Cell Membrane and Bloom S Category
    Test File to accompany Life: The Science of Biology, Ninth Edition Sadava • Hillis • Heller • Berenbaum Chapter 6: Cell Membranes TEST FILE QUESTIONS (By Catherine Ueckert) Multiple Choice 1. The compounds in biological membranes that form a barrier to the movement of hydrophilic materials across the membrane are a. integral membrane proteins. b. carbohydrates. c. lipids. d. nucleic acids. e. peripheral membrane proteins. Answer: c Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the...
    9,348 Words | 43 Pages
  • structure and function of plasma membrane in cells
    ESSAY ‘The structure and importance of the plasma membrane found within and around all cells’ The plasma membrane surrounds all eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells have membrane bounded organelles whereas prokaryotic cells do not. The plasma membrane forms the boundary between the cell cytoplasm and the environment. Its function are to allow different environments to be established inside and outside the cell. It also controls the movement of substances into and out of the...
    1,094 Words | 3 Pages
  • Cells - 1210 Words
    INTRODUCTION The present invention relates to a process for the preparation of a biological material or compound, particularly a section of tissue on an object carrier, for examination with a microscope as well as a corresponding arrangement of a biological material prepared in such a manner on carrier means, for example a glass object carrier. In particular, the present invention relates to such a process for the preparation of an examination of the biological material (in the following also...
    1,210 Words | 4 Pages
  • Effect of Detergent Concentration on Membrane Permeability of Beetroot Cells
    Aim: To investigate how effect of Detergent Concentration (cont.) has on Membrane permeability of Beetroot cells. Hypothesis: I predict that as detergent concentration increases, the solution will become less clear, plus mass increases. The increases in mass will indicate that the water potential of the Beetroot cell is lower than that of the surrounding sucrose solution. The Beetroot discs will become flaccid and decrease in mass if the water potential of the surrounding solution is...
    2,078 Words | 11 Pages
  • Outline the Roles of Plasma Membrane at the Surface of a Cell
    Outline the roles of membrane at the surface of the cell The plasma membrane encloses the cell, defines it boundaries and maintains the essential differences between the cytosol and the extra-cellular environment. The separation of the internal and external environment maintains a constant internal environment which is essential for the cell to function efficiently. Membrane receptors can interact with specific molecules corresponding to stimuli such as hormones to generate a signal cascade...
    763 Words | 3 Pages
  • Can Different Temperature Effect the Cell Membrane of a Beetroot
    Table of Contents Abstract Introduction Aim Hypothesis Material Method Results Discussion Conclusion  Abstract The aim of this experiment was to see whether different temperatures will affect the cell membrane, thus would then releases the purple pigments out of the vacuole which causes the leakage of the purplish liquid.  Background Information The outermost layer is the cell wall, which is present only in plant cells and is made up of a carbohydrate called cellulose and also has...
    1,038 Words | 4 Pages
  • Cell Membrane Structure and Active vs Passive Transport
    Discuss the structure of the plasma membrane and explain the process of active and passive transport through the membrane. The plasma membrane is made up of proteins that form pores and channels, carbohydrate molecules that are used for cell recognition and cholesterol to provide membrane stability. Phospholipid molecules are the most abundant component found in the plasma membrane. Phospholipids molecules are composed of a phosphate head and a lipid tail; the structure of a cell...
    435 Words | 2 Pages
  • 8 Themes of Ap Biology Relating to the Cell Membrane
    8 themes of biology relating to the cell membrane Science as a process: Science is a process which encompasses many methods in order to reach a final conclusion. This relates to the cell membrane because it carries out many processes to reach a final product. For example, the cell membrane forms a barrier between the inside of the cell and the outside, so that the chemical environments on the two sides can be different. The cell controls those differences to optimize the working of the...
    747 Words | 3 Pages
  • Cell Membrane/ Electron Transport Chain / Biochemical Pathway
    1. The cell membrane structure is vital to the life of the cell. The cell membrane is shaped as having a phosphate head at the very outer surface, and two fatty acid tails hanging from it. The membrane is double, so at the tip of the fatty acid tails, there are two more fatty acid tails attached to another phosphate head. This is what it looks like:

    The reason the cell membrane is shaped like this is mainly to control the water flow in and out of the cell. Water is very important...
    685 Words | 2 Pages
  • Investigating the Effects of Temperature on Cell Membranes Essay Example
    Investigating the effects of temperature on cell membranes Independent variable: Temperature of beetroot Dependent variable: Absorbency of light Hypothesis: As temperature rises to its optimum temperature, the absorbency of light will increase because protein is an enzyme and will therefore be affected by temperature. This is because more beetroot dye will pass through the cell membrane and then into the distilled water. The deeper the colour of the beetroot dye, the higher the...
    1,319 Words | 4 Pages
  • The Important Components of the Cell Membrane of Eukaryotic Organisms
    2007 AP Question 1 A) Three macromolecules that are very important components of the Cell Membrane of Eukaryotic organisms include molecules such as phospholipids, cholesterol and Glycoproteins all of which contribute to the continued functioning of the cell membrane. Phospholipids Structure: form the majority of the cell membrane, two layers of phospholipids combine to form the phospholipid bilayer, the phospholipids are made of two fatty acid tails attached to a phosphate head, the...
    707 Words | 3 Pages
  • Investigation the effect of the organic solvents on the cell membrane of the beetroot
    Investigation the effect of the organic solvents on the cell membrane of the beetroot Objective: To investigate the effect of different organic solvents, such as alcohol and paraffin oil, on the cell membrane of the beetroot by using the red pigments in the beetroot as indicator. Hypothesis: Organic solvents dissolve the organic matter in the cell membrane (such as phospholipids). This destroys the cell membrane, and the permeability of the cell membrane is disrupted casing red pigments...
    991 Words | 4 Pages
  • Effect of temperature and SDS concentration on cell membranes of beet root cell
     EFFECT OF CHANGES IN TEMPERATURE AND SDS CONCENTRATION ON THE STRUCTURE OF BEETROOT CELL MEMBRANES. Introduction Cellular Membranes or cell membranes are biological membranes that separate the interior of a cell from the outside environment. Cell membranes are selectively permeable to ions and some molecules and control the movement of substances in and out of the cell. (Danyk, 2013/14) Cell membranes separate and organize chemicals and reactions within cells by allowing...
    1,723 Words | 6 Pages
  • What is the effect of temperature on the permeability of beetroot cell membranes?
    Plan:- Independent Variable- Temperature is what I will be changing in the experiment. I want to find out what effect temperature has on the permeability of a cell membrane. Controlling other Variables- I will use measures to ensure that everything stays the same in my test to gain the best and most reliable results possible - Same volume of water that I put the beetroot into after heating. - The beetroot I use will be the same size each time, I will ensure this using a cork borer. - The...
    661 Words | 4 Pages
  • Faiyaz L Investigate Factors Affecting Cell Membrane Permeability In Beetroot
    Investigate factors affecting cell membrane permeability in beetroot. Research Question: How does variation in temperature affect the permeability of cell membranes? Background Information: In this investigation I will want to identify how variations in temperature effect the permeability through the use of a beetroot. I predict that as the temperature of the water increases so will the dispersion of the pigment. Independent Variable: The temperature of water will be increased in increments of...
    666 Words | 4 Pages
  • Bio 110 the Effect of Solvent Exposure and Temperature on Beet Cell Membrane Integrity
    The Effect of Solvent Exposure and Temperature on Beet Cell Membrane Integrity Introduction: • Cell membranes are vital to proper cellular function • Cell membranes consist of a lipid bilayer made up of phospholipids • Phospholipids are amphipathic molecules meaning they have a dual nature in that they show both hydrophilic (water-loving) and hydrophobic (water-fearing) properties • The amphipathic nature of phospholipids causes them to spontaneously form bilayers in water...
    1,173 Words | 4 Pages
  • Plasma Membrane - 926 Words
    The cell, which is the smallest unit of life, is surrounded by a plasma membrane. The plasma membrane functions somewhat like a wall, as it keeps the internal contents from the external environment. Just like a wall, the membrane is also somewhat permeable, except that the membrane takes a much more active role in determining what is allowed in to the cell and what is kept out. The plasma membrane is a very thin structure, which has some very important tasks. One of the main tasks that it...
    926 Words | 3 Pages
  • The Effect of Solvent Exposure and Temperature on Beet Cell Membrane Integrity
    Firstly, 1mm beetroot disks were cut and washed in order to remove any excess betacyanin. We then distributed the disks into 6 test tubes, so that there were 6 disks in each. After 10ml of water had been added, 5 of the tubes were put into water baths at 3, 25, 45, 55 and 70°C and the 6th tube was put into a deep freeze (without any water added). All 6 tubes were incubated for 45 minutes. Following incubation, water was added to the deep freeze tube, the tubes were al inverted in order to decant...
    360 Words | 1 Page
  • investigating membranes - 699 Words
    Aim How temperature affects membranes: investigating the effect temperature has on Beta vulgaris membranes when submerged in a range of different temperatures for one minute. Background Information A cell membrane is made up of a phospholipid bilayer formed by phospholipids that have a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail. The phospholipids arrange themselves in order that the heads are exposed to water and the tails are not thus forming the bilayer. When the temperature increases...
    699 Words | 3 Pages
  • Membrane Permeability - 1476 Words
    Experiment 5 Title: Membrane Permeability Objectives: 1. Define solvent, solute, solution, selectively permeable, diffusion, osmosis, concentration gradient, equilibrium, turgid, plasmolyzed, plasmolysis, turgor pressure, tonicity, hypertonic, isotonic, hypotonic; 2. Describe the effects of hypertonic, isotonic, and hypotonic solutions on Elodea leaf cells and onion scale leafs. Introduction: Membrane permeability is a quality of a cell’s plasma membrane that allows substances to pass...
    1,476 Words | 5 Pages
  • Plasms Membrane - 264 Words
    I feel you did a great job on your assignment for this week explaining the properties of the cell membrane with the correct terms integral proteins, channel proteins and bilipid construction. Your last paragraph was very detailed with great information about the cell membrane, you stated “ The cell membrane is very thin and fragile, and it contains two different types of proteins. “Integral proteins are part of the membrane structure and cannot be removed without damaging or destroying the...
    264 Words | 1 Page
  • Membrane Transport - 296 Words
    Membrane Transport Christopher Gaita, Deija Williams, Elisabeth Johnston & Megan Lade University of Phoenix (Online Campus) Amy Sullivan Introduction: Membrane Transport • What is membrane transport • Types – – – – Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport Endocytosis/Exocytosis Photo Courtesy Of: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/biology/celmem.html Osmosis • Example: A semipermeable membrane bag containing a 30% sugar solution is placed in a beaker of pure water. – Diffusion or...
    296 Words | 3 Pages
  • Beetroot Membranes - 1723 Words
    Part 1 Part 1 of the experiment investigated the effect of different temperatures on beetroot cell membranes (a type of plant cell). Through this experiment, the process of diffusion and osmosis was in action. Various temperatures ranging from low temperatures to high temperatures such as -5⁰C, 5⁰C, 30⁰C, 50⁰C and 80⁰C were used to investigate the temperature effects on beetroot cell membranes. The hypothesis predicted that the higher the temperature the darker the beetroot substance and the...
    1,723 Words | 5 Pages
  • Membrane Permeability - 1229 Words
    Title Membrane Permeability Aim To determine the effect of various chemicals and high temperature on the membrane permeability of beetroot Hypothesis Organic solvent and high temperature will destroy the cell membrane and make it permeable to the red pigment. The higher the concentration of the alcohol, the greater will be this effect. Principle Beetroot is the material used in this experiment to demonstrate the effects of high temperature and chemicals on the permeability of the cell...
    1,229 Words | 5 Pages
  • Biological Membranes - 939 Words
    Biological Membranes Lipid Membranes • Receptors, detecting the signals from outside: Light Odorant Taste Chemicals A Hormones Neurotransmitters Drugs • Channels, gates and pumps • Electric/chemical potential Neurophysiology Energy • Energy transduction: Photosynthesis Oxidative phosphorylation • • • • • • Structure Function Composition Physicochemical properties Self-assembly Molecular models highly selective permeability barrier Internal membranes for organelles Bilayer...
    939 Words | 7 Pages
  • Membrane Permeability - 293 Words
    The purpose of this experiment was to observe the process of diffusion of substances across a semipermeable membrane to gain a better understanding of how cells move materials across cell membranes. The experiment was designed to exhibit Brownian Motion; the random movement and tendency of particles of a substance to move from an area of greater concentration to lower concentration via diffusion until equilibrium has been attained. In addition to observing the passive process of diffusion, the...
    293 Words | 2 Pages
  • Membrane Permeability - 592 Words
    4.1 Aim The aim of this lab session is to demonstrate the effect of different conditions on membrane permeability. 4.2 Learning Objectives In this Lab Session, students will acquire the skills to: - analyze the effect of different temperatures on membrane integrity. - analyze the effect of the organic solvent acetone on membrane integrity. 4.3 Introduction Even though membranes separate cells from their surrounding environment and different organelles within the cells from...
    592 Words | 3 Pages
  • Osmosis: Cell and Epidermal Cells
    36 osmosis in living plant cells Backround If a plant cell is in contact with a HYPERTONIC solution, that is a solution that has a highersolute concentration than the cell contents, water leaves the cell by osmosis via the cell membrane. Water is lost first from the cytoplasm and then the sap vacuole through the tonoplast. The PROTOPLAST – the living part of the cell (cytoplasm+nucleus) shrinks and eventually pulls away form the cell wall – this process is called PLASMOLYSIS, and the...
    346 Words | 2 Pages
  • Movement of Substances Across Cell Membranes in the Functioning of Cells Tissues and Organs Essay Example
    There are many ways in which substances can move across the cell membrane and in which then helps in the function of the body (cells, tissues and organs) overall. There are 3 processes that a substance can move across the membrane, theses are diffusion (simple and facilitated), osmosis and active transport. Both diffusion and osmosis are passive processes, which mean they do not need energy to occur, whereas active transport does require energy. All three processes are involved in many functions...
    815 Words | 3 Pages
  • Onion Cell - 493 Words
    Unit 1: fundamentals of science. Title An investigation of an onion cell using a light microscope. Aim: The aim of this investigation is to identify the cells within an onion skin using a light microscope. An onion cell is a plant cell which through the light microscope, it should outline the cell wall, cell membrane and the nucleus. Introduction: Plant cells have a cell wall and cell membrane which animal cells do not have. The cell wall provides support and is relatively rigid, which...
    493 Words | 2 Pages
  • COmpartmentalisation of cells - 1234 Words
    DESCRIBE THE STRUCTURAL COMPARTMENTATION OF MAMMALIAN CELLS AND THE DIFFERING FUNCTIONS OF THESE COMPARTMENTS? Mammalian cells are eukaryotic this means that all of their cells have common components, membrane bound organelles which prokaryotic cells do not this is shown in figure 1. Organelles are purpose made to carry out a specific function that is necessary within a cell. Due to the specificity of both conditions and concentrations with in these organelles these are compartmentalized....
    1,234 Words | 4 Pages
  • Cell Structure - 1208 Words
    Experiment 3 Objectives: After completing the exercise, I was able to: a) Prepare the specimens for staining. b) Observe and identify the unique and typical structures of the microscopic world. c) Identify and use different stains for different types of organelles. Introduction Cell is the simplest unit of life as we see it now. All organisms are made from cells. It is first explained by Robert Hooke in the year 1665 and it is now known to be of almost universal occurrence...
    1,208 Words | 4 Pages
  • EARLY CELLS - 341 Words
    Egg size: Started at 6 (24 hours), 7.5 (48 hours), 8,4 (72 hours) Hypothesis: My hypothesis was that it would grow a little bit from it original size and smell really bad and it would be rubber. Results: They match, it smelled terrible and it grow a little bit. Experiment notes- First I put the egg on the vinager, the the egg started to float on the top A few hours later it started to smell bad, and like the shell started to come away And then it just all the shell break off and like the egg...
    341 Words | 1 Page
  • Cell Bio - 1976 Words
    MOVEMENT ACROSS MEMBRANES Intracellular fluid Extracellular fluid Pond water Blood plasma K+ A- ClNa+ Cl+ K+ Na+ Cl- Na+ Na+ Gill epithelial cell Intestinal epithelial cells Cl- Cell membrane Anionic proteins (a) Ion concentration inside a single animal cell (b) Ion concentration across gill epithelium of a freshwater fish Blood capillary Intestinal lumen Glucose from meal Cross section of small intestine (c) Glucose transport across intestinal epithelium...
    1,976 Words | 17 Pages
  • Cell and Diagram - 2220 Words
    w w w e tr .X m eP e ap UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS International General Certificate of Secondary Education .c rs om 0610/01 BIOLOGY Paper 1 Multiple Choice Additional Materials: Multiple Choice Answer Sheet Soft clean eraser Soft pencil (type B or HB is recommended) October/November 2008 45 minutes *1478016376* READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST Write in soft pencil. Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid. Write your name,...
    2,220 Words | 15 Pages
  • early cells - 410 Words
    [ print page ] Lab Report for Hands­On and Video Observation Labs Question How are cells affected by the movement of water? they expand Hypothesis (What do you think will happen to the egg after the three days? Be sure to give a reason for your hypothesis.) i think the shell of the egg will dissolve and the egg will expand in the liquid. Data and Observations Time (hrs) Observation s Circumference (cm) 0 its a raw hard egg 8cm 24 the shell of the egg has ...
    410 Words | 2 Pages
  • animal cells - 328 Words
    Animal cells are distinct from plant cells. Animal cells lack a cell wall (cellulose) which allows the animal to move without breaking it's cells apart. When you break a piece of celery, the noise It has a nucleus, a cytoplasm and a cell membrane. http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_some_animal_cel... What are facts about on animal cells? theyt have no cell wall. they have a nucleus and nucleolus. http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_facts_about_on_... What are some facts on an animal...
    328 Words | 2 Pages
  • cell communication - 1158 Words
    Cell Communication Evolution of Cell Signaling -a signal transduction pathway is a series of steps by which a signal on a cell’s surface is converted into a specific cellular response -signal transduction pathways convert signals on a cell’s surface into cellular response -pathway similarities suggest that ancestral signaling molecules evolved in prokaryotes and were modified later in eukaryotes. Yeast Cells Signaling -two mating types -alpha cells and A cells -alpha cells make...
    1,158 Words | 5 Pages
  • cell organelle - 445 Words
    Dear Cell Corporation, I am the cell membrane. I am made up of a bi-lipid membranous layer composed of protein and carbohydrates. I don’t know how you can fire me considering all of the things that I am doing and the things that I have done for you. I work for you in both cells; the animal cell and the plant cell. I have been providing and am still providing support and protection. I control the movement of materials in and out of both cells. I am a barrier between the cells and their...
    445 Words | 1 Page
  • Cell and Skill - 9719 Words
    Biology: Concepts and Connections, 6e (Campbell) Test Bank (1) Part (1) Chapter 1 Introduction: The Scientific Study of Life 1) Which of the following statements about the leopard is false? A) Leopards are the largest cat in the genus Panthera. B) Leopards, like lions, can roar. C) Leopards prefer to eat their kill in trees. D) Leopards are well-adapted for nocturnal hunting. E) Leopards are normally solitary animals. Answer: A Topic: Opening Essay Skill:...
    9,719 Words | 56 Pages
  • The Anatomy of Cells - 1395 Words
    Ch. 1: Biology: Exploring Life 1) Slides 1 and 2: What is the main difference between physiological adaptation (as in sense, respond and adapt to the environment) and evolutionary adaptation? Evolutionary adaptation occurs over generations. Evolutionary adaptation does involve genetic change but it’s the change in traits as a result of genetic change that drives natural selection and evolutionary adaptation (just genetic change alone won’t drive evolutionary change). Physiological adaptation...
    1,395 Words | 5 Pages
  • Cell Biology - 374 Words
    • Chapter 7 o Online questions • The fluid mosaic model is now generally accepted for the description of all biological membranes • Transmembrane segments of membrane proteins anchor membrane proteins in the lipid bilayer. • A ganglioside is not a phospholipid. • Thin-layer chromatography separates lipids based on hydrophobicity. • Unsaturated fatty acids have double bonds and increased membrane fluidity. • Cholesterol increases fluidity at low temperatures and decreases fluidity at high...
    374 Words | 2 Pages
  • Cell and Cytoplasm - 881 Words
    Structure of Cytoplasm Basically, cytoplasm is the fluid, where the organelles remain suspended. So, it fills up the cell, especially the spaces not occupied by any organelle. The constituent parts of cytoplasm are cytosol, organelles and cytoplasmic inclusions. Cytosol Cytosol is the part of the cytoplasm that is not occupied by any organelle. It is a gelatinous substance. It mainly consists of cytoskeleton filaments, organic molecules, salt and water. Cytoskeleton filaments are made up...
    881 Words | 3 Pages
  • Membrane Lab Report - 1506 Words
    The Effects of Various Chemicals and Temperature on Membrane Permeability of Beetroot Name: Ghazal Daneshfar E-mail: GDANES200@caledonian.ac.uk Student ID: S1312108 INTRODUCTION The cell membrane consists of mostly phospholipids and proteins which gives the cell its selectively permeable nature. The function and permeability of the cell membrane depends on its whole structure. When destroyed, the permeability of the cell membrane is disrupted causing cellular contents to leak...
    1,506 Words | 6 Pages
  • Transport across membrane - 2492 Words
    3.1 BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANES 3.1.1 Properties of Cell Membranes • Separates living cell from its nonliving surroundings. • 8 nm thick. • Selectively permeable - allows some substances to cross more easily than others. 4.1.2 Fluid Mosaic Model • Singer and Nicolson (1972) - plasma membrane is a mosaic of proteins dispersed within lipid bilayer, with only bilayer, the hydrophilic regions exposed to water. Hydrophilic region of protein Phospholipid bilayer Hydrophobic region of...
    2,492 Words | 31 Pages
  • Early Cells - 352 Words
    1 Hypothesis If you soak an egg in vinegar, then the shell will deteriorate and loose centimeters off of it's circumference. Data and Observations Time (hrs) Observations Circumference (cm) 0 1. The egg is whole, and has not lost color. 2. The egg was immediately surrounded by bubbles. 3. 14 cm 4. 24 1. The egg appears to have a little bit of color missing. 2. The egg remains firm. 3. 15.5cm 4. 48 1. The eggs shell is beginning to disappear. 2. The shell of the egg is...
    352 Words | 2 Pages
  • Damage of Beet Cell Membranes Caused by Different Temperatures Resulting in Betacyanin Leakage Essay Example
    Damage of Beet Cell Membranes Caused by Different Temperatures Resulting in Betacyanin Leakage By: Trevor Sandum, Lab 2, March 9, 2013 Introduction: A red pigment called Betacyanin located in the vacuole of the beet cells is released when the membrane is damaged (Danyk, 2013). The membrane is necessary for sustainability of the cell’s life, it separates the cell from the outside environment, and is responsible for diffusion, exocytosis and endocytosis, and transport. It...
    604 Words | 2 Pages
  • Effect of Temperature on Beetroot Membrane
    | %T at 430nm | | | | | | | temperature ( °C) | Ellen | Sophie | Luke | LucyB | Will | Claire | | Average | | 0 | | | 93 | | | | | 93 | | 10 | 82 | 113 | 88 | | 90 | 91 | | 92.8 | | 20 | 87 | 90 | 92 | 91 | 91 | 89 | | 90 | | 30 | 72 | 85 | 75 | 93 | 95 | 89 | | 84.8 | | 40 | 62 | 86 | 80 | 82 | 84 | 90 | | 80.7 | | 50 | 93 | 87 | 41 | 52 | | 68 | | 68.2 | | 60 | 11 | 14 | 10 | 12 | 16 | 11 | | 12.3 | | 70 | 11 | 13 | 25...
    823 Words | 3 Pages
  • Plasma and Membrane Transport - 1244 Words
    Lecture: Plasma Membrane and Transport I. Structure of the Plasma Membrane A. plasma membrane - the surface encapsulating a cell B. Fluid Mosaic Model 1. bilayer of phospholipids a. hydrophilic heads - P04 end "water" "loving" attracted to water on inner/outer parts of cell b. hydrophobic tails - fatty acids "water" "fearing" attracted to each other on inside of bilayer...
    1,244 Words | 8 Pages
  • Effects of Alcohols on Membranes - 988 Words
    ABSTRACT Beer’s Law is an empirical relationship that relates the absorption of light to the properties of the material through which the light is travelling. In turn, absorbance is proportional to concentration and the higher the concentration, the higher the absorbance. This experiment incorporated Beer’s Law and is focused on determining the stress that various alcohols have on biological membranes. Using five solutions of differing alcohol concentration for each of the three alcohols;...
    988 Words | 3 Pages
  • Investigating Membrane Permeability - 1086 Words
    Investigating Membrane Permeability Reason for choosing beetroot as the object of experiments Beetroot is usually used as the membrane ‘disruption’ experiment. It is because of beetroot has more pigments in their vacuole. These pigments show how variables damage the membrane of beetroot. The pigments will be automatically extracted from the vacuole when the membrane is broken. More damages at plasma membrane, more pigments will be extracted. In many plants that give beautiful colour,...
    1,086 Words | 4 Pages
  • Membranes Under Stress - 822 Words
    Membranes Under Stress Properties of Cell Membranes Aim: Investigate the effect of different substances on beetroot cell membranes. From the results, make some references about the structure of cell membranes. Materials: Refer to sheet. Method: Refer to sheet Results: Table 1: Intensity of pigment colour in solutions Time (from start) Distilled Water pH 2 4 7 9 10 Alcohol 1% 25% 50% Detergent 1% 5% Observation 1 1 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 2 1 Observation...
    822 Words | 3 Pages
  • effect temperature on permeability of membrane
    Description To investigate whether temperature will damage and denature the permeability of plasma membrane. Preview TITLE The effect of temperature on the cell membranes of Beetroot cells. OBJECTIVES To investigate whether temperature will damage and denature the permeability of plasma membrane. HYPOTHESIS An increase in temperature will damage and denature the permeability of plasma membrane. INTRODUCTIONS Beetroot The beet (Beta vulgaris) is a plant in the Chenopodiaceae...
    508 Words | 2 Pages
  • Describe the current model of membrane structure and explain how it accounts for the movement of some substances into and out of the cells
    The cell membrane is a barrier to the entry and exit of substances. They are semi-permeable barriers, allowing some substances through but not others. It does this by having some small pores or channels. The membrane is a thin sheet composed of a lipid (fat) bilayer called phospholipid. It consists of a water-soluble end (hydophilic), facing inwards to the cytoplasm and outwards to the extracellular fluid. The non-water-soluble (hydrophobic) ends face each other internally. The lipid bilayer is...
    167 Words | 1 Page
  • Membrane Structure and Function - 931 Words
    PLASMA MEMBRANE SELECTIVE PERMEABILITY= allowing some substance to cross it more easily than others composed of: Phospholipids Proteins Carbohydrates Cholesterol FLUID MOSAIC MODEL Phospholipids are primary lipids(constantly moving, fluidly) AMPHIPATHIC-containing hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions Mosaic part=not made of one thing Freeze-fracture studies:way to view what's inside FLUIDITY OF MEMBRANE Move within bilayer Most of lipids and some proteins, drift laterally...
    931 Words | 4 Pages
  • Scientific Paper on Membranes - 3070 Words
    The Semipermeability of Cell Membrane to Different Osmotic Environments Using Dialyzing Bag Model1 Sittie Johaynnah M. Sambarani Group 3 Sec. I-1L December 17, 2012 ------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------- 1 A scientific paper in partial fulfillment of the requirements in Biology 10 Laboratory under Professor Junaldo...
    3,070 Words | 10 Pages
  • The Effect of Temperature on Membrane - 1905 Words
    Practical 2.1- The Effect of Temperature on Membranes Objective To investigate the effect of temperature on membrane structure Introduction Beetroot Pigments Beetroots contain Betalains which are the red pigments present in the cell vacuole. Betalains are soluble in water and they contain nitrogen. Betalains extracted from beetroot is commonly used as food dye because it is not known to cause any allergic reactions. Beetroot Picture taken from http://tipdeck/how-to-cook-beet-root...
    1,905 Words | 7 Pages
  • The effect of Temperature on Beetroot Membranes
    Usman Omid Biology IB 1A The Effect of Temperature on Beetroot Membranes _Aim_ This practical will test the effect of temperature on the integrity of the membranes, _Introduction_ The cells of beetroot contain a pigment called betalain in their vacuoles. It is kept inside the cells by the membranes. If these membranes are damaged, then the betalain leaks out. The amount that leaks out can be assessed, as the leaked out pigment will color the water surrounding the cells. This information...
    1,525 Words | 10 Pages
  • Plasma Membrane Essay - 384 Words
    The plasma membrane is a fluid phospholipid bilayer. The outside of the bilayer is hydrophilic portions of porteins and phospholipids because they are exposed to water. This results in a stable membrane structure. Inside the bilayer hydrophobic portions of proteins and phospholipids because the inside of the bilayer is nonaqueous. the proteins bob in the fluid bilayer of phospholipids. The proteins also vary in structure and function. There are teh integral proteins;...
    384 Words | 3 Pages


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