social critic Bertrand Russell (1938/2004, 4) put it, “the fundamental concept in social science is Power, in the same way in which Energy is the fundamental concept in physics.” Power, like energy, takes many forms and is essential in understanding why things happen as they do in society.
Groups, as we have seen constantly try to enforce conformity on their members through the use of sanctions-- both positive and negative; formal and informal. In this section of the course, we'll address how and why people deviate from social norms.
Deviance is the violation of a...
Criminology as a subject therefore focuses on three main areas.
(a) The sociology of law, which examines social aspects and the institutions of the law.
(b) Theories of causation (criminogenisis)
(c) The study of the social responses to crime, which examines in more depth the...
Proxemics – Edward Hall – set of measurable distances as they interact
Personal space – private, family, friends
Social Space – acquaintances
Public space – public speaking
Deviance and Crime
Idealization- convincing others that what we do reflects ideal cultural standards other selfish...
are treated unfairly is considered to be a form of natural morality (see Kropotkin, Anarchist Morality and Mutual Aid).
2Anarchists do not consider professional expertise to be “authoritarian” (see Bakunin, Law and Authority).
3.Health care, child care and education should be paid for by the...
play loud music in a public park obviously do not view it as a problem, but some other people may consider it an undesirable social condition. Some nonsmokers view smoking as an undesirable social condition that should be banned or restricted in public buildings.
Every newspaper is filled with...
socialization with nature of crime.
III. . To see the responsibility of family in socialization
IV. . To identify what’s social agents are mainly related to criminality
CHAPTER:-TWO: RESEARCH DESIGNE
2.1: Overview of Literature:
Some sociologists argue that family and the state apparatus hold...
delinquency (minor crime) is the most common class for youths
Whydo the previous theories imply that crime is more common among people of lower social standing?
Labelling: This is the main contribution. : the idea that deviance and conformity result not so much from what people do as from others...
restored to their intended purpose: providing moral and social support for college students.
The lack of a common definition of hazing often deters an institution from moving toward an enforceable policy prohibiting such conduct as hazing. An institutional policy should be developed defining and...
› Males commit more
› Evidence of this is supported in data from
Criminological theories and studies have been male dominated
to take the weapons and powder in the communities surrounding Boston.
23. How and why did taverns become a central institution in colonial American social life?
Taverns became a central institution in colonial American social life because taverns were the place where everyone (men) met to...
Most money-laundering schemes involve some combination of these methods, although the Black Market Peso Exchange is a one-stop-shopping system once someone smuggles the cash to the peso broker. The variety of tools available to launderers makes this a difficult crime to stop, but authoritiesdo...
possibility of establishing connections
between delinquent groups and other socialinstitutions—a “symbiosis” in which
gangs can, for instance, work to satisfy any of a community’s needs.5 As mentioned
earlier, in many cases juvenile delinquent groups are also the entry point to adult
: People within Places
Social Structure Theories
* An emphasis on place, NOT people.
* A focus on macro-level social factors
* Whydosome places have higher crime rates?
* Taken from plant and animal biology- the study of the relationships between individuals and how...
American sees financial success as a major goal in life.
They don’t explain why women’s crime rates are much lower than men’s.
They ignore the role of social structure in explaining deviance and crime.
They don’t explain crimes of passion and rage...
crimes are more easily detected.
Why people conform and do not act deviantly
Those with strong community ties conform
Those without do not
Travis Hirschi - four steps toward non-deviancy
Form attachments to others
Strong belief in moral codes
were some areas that were generally well-to-do, and had the resources allocated to sanctify institutions, and thus, less delinquency, in stark contrast, some regions had such a degradation of institutions and conventional life that crime was an accepted way of life. Some youths also lived in areas in...
also influences forms of social behavior. Foremost is the lack of compliance with the law. Simply put, viewing the operation of the law, the institutions and the officials empowered by it as oppressive makes abiding by
the law —despite acknowledging its normative virtues— difficult. “Citizens
important institutions that the Nigerian society cannot do without. For this reason, since its inception, this Administration has taken serious steps towards improving the morale of officers and men of the Nigeria Police and increasing their capacity to satisfactorily combat crime and apprehend...
, however, who don’t are the cause of disorder. One crime is just one too many.
Specially heinous and organizedcrimes.
We are today about 78 million Filipinos. Forty million of us belong to the voting age. Question is
how many of us are committing crimes? To be sure, only a few. We do not need...