on February 20, 2010.
3. What are some approaches used when budgeting?
Budgeting can be done from a top-down or a bottom-up approach. In a top-down approach, a set amount of money is allocated to the project by senior management and the project manager...
differencesbetweenbottom-up and top-downestimatingapproaches? Under what conditions would you prefer one over the other?
Top-down estimates usually are derived from someone who use experience and /or information to determine the project duration and total cost. Bottom-up estimates are based on task...
of a project or a task, a problem that will lead to major issues in the overall budget.
Top-down budgeting works the opposite direction of bottom-up budgeting. Top-down budgeting begins by estimating the costs of higher level tasks, and then those estimates will constrain the...
: Outline or graphical org chart
Shows hierarchical task relationships
High-level version does not show dependencies or durations
What hurts most is what’s missing
Becomes input to many things, esp. schedule
Approaches to building WBS
Review – Estimation
Size Estimation Techniques
Bottom-up vs. Top...
Estimating Projects: Preferred Approach
• Make rough top-down estimates. • Develop the WBS/OBS. • Make bottom-up estimates. • Develop schedules and budgets. • Reconcile differencesbetweentop-down and bottom-up estimates
Methods for Estimating Project Times and Costs
• Macro (Top-down...
strongly discouraged to feed into estimating gamesmanship.
3. What are the differencesbetweenbottom-up and top-downestimatingapproaches?
Under what conditions would you perfer one over the other?
Top-down estimates usually are derived from someone who uses experience and/or information to...
addresses the relative performance of these two investment approaches. In addition to these two investment processes, the investment community also focuses on the distinction between “BottomUp” and “TopDown.” A manager who
emphasizes individual stocks is said to be BottomUp, and a manager who...
Sciences Institute Univ. of Southern California Marina del Rey, CA
Traditionally, top-down and bottom-up design approaches have competed with each other in Algorithmics and Software Engineering. In the top-down approach...
* Reconcile differencesbetweentop-down and bottom-up estimates
Why estimating time and cost is important
* Estimates are needed to support good decisions
* Estimates are needed to schedule work activities
* Estimates are needed to determine how long the project...
, changing baseline schedule and budget)?
10. Identify and briefly describe the major methods of top-downestimating.
11. Identify and briefly describe the major methods of bottom-upestimating.
12. Under what conditions would the top-down approach to estimating project times and costs...
AN INTRODUCTION TO SECURITY VALUATION
Answers to Questions
1. The top-down valuation process begins by examining the influence of the general economy on all firms and the security markets. The next step is to analyze the various industries in light of the economic environment...
is meant by the top-down and the bottom-upapproaches to
budgeting. Which problems need to be tackled in each case? (4 points)
Early phases: Allocating budgets to subunits (rough estimation / fast)
Later phases: Collating detailed estimates into budgets (Precise budgets...
Document under Version Control
Project cost estimating is usually performed by summing estimates for individual project elements into a project total.
Bottom-up estimates are often prepared by contractors to support their proposal bid process
Top-down estimates use rules...
, based upon an unleverd beta of 0.95 (estimated using aerospace
companies listed globally) and Embraer’s debt to equity ratio of 19.01%. For more on the rationale for bottom-up betas read the companion paper on estimating risk parameters.
average inflation rate in Brazil between 1998 and...
as the absolute differencebetween the
estimated fraction and the ground-truth result of each experiment
using all 1000 HITs in each experiment. We break the results down
by the batch size of the various approaches.
We see that when using labeling, getting multiple labels per item
widely from the top-down ones. In fact, it's more likely that the reverse is true.
Instead, use the top-down estimates to challenge the validity of the bottom-up estimates, and to refine them as appropriate.
With comparative estimating, you look at the time it took to do...
and culminating in the behavioral responses of perceiving,
recognizing, and acting.
3. What is the role of higher-level or “cognitive”
processes in perception? Be sure you understand
the differencebetweenbottom-up and top-down
4. What does it mean to say that perception can be...
can be virtually impossible to understand how the prediction was made.
What are the two types of models for estimating credit risk on loan portfolios and when are they generally used? Give one example of each, and specify the inputs of the examples.
Bottom-up models, also known as causal models...
Proposal Time value of money -Discount rate Reflects characteristics of insurance contract liability Risk adjustment “The maximum amount the insurer would rationally pay to be relieved of the risk…” Residual margin Residual margin locked in at Inception IASB Tentative View Guidance: top-down and bottom-up...
Statements, 2010 FRM Part I
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• • • •
Actuarial approaches Empirical loss distributions Parametric loss distributions Extreme value theory Compare and contrast top-down and bottom-upapproaches to measuring operational risk. Describe ways to hedge against catastrophic...