• Cmgt/410 Week 3 Dq 1
    ://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/budget-estimate.html on February 20, 2010. 3. What are some approaches used when budgeting? Budgeting can be done from a top-down or a bottom-up approach. In a top-down approach, a set amount of money is allocated to the project by senior management and the project manager...
    Premium 1073 Words 5 Pages
  • Bmgt 485 Ch 5
    differences between bottom-up and top-down estimating approaches? Under what conditions would you prefer one over the other? Top-down estimates usually are derived from someone who use experience and /or information to determine the project duration and total cost. Bottom-up estimates are based on task...
    Premium 300 Words 2 Pages
  • Integerity
    of a project or a task, a problem that will lead to major issues in the overall budget. Top-down budgeting Top-down budgeting works the opposite direction of bottom-up budgeting. Top-down budgeting begins by estimating the costs of higher level tasks, and then those estimates will constrain the...
    Premium 2429 Words 10 Pages
  • midterm review
    : Outline or graphical org chart Shows hierarchical task relationships High-level version does not show dependencies or durations What hurts most is what’s missing Becomes input to many things, esp. schedule Approaches to building WBS Review – Estimation Size Estimation Techniques Bottom-up vs. Top...
    Premium 1068 Words 5 Pages
  • Project Management
    Estimating Projects: Preferred Approach • Make rough top-down estimates. • Develop the WBS/OBS. • Make bottom-up estimates. • Develop schedules and budgets. • Reconcile differences between top-down and bottom-up estimates Methods for Estimating Project Times and Costs • Macro (Top-down...
    Premium 851 Words 4 Pages
  • Project Management
    strongly discouraged to feed into estimating gamesmanship. 3. What are the differences between bottom-up and top-down estimating approaches? Under what conditions would you perfer one over the other? Top-down estimates usually are derived from someone who uses experience and/or information to...
    Premium 1699 Words 7 Pages
  • Fundamental Analysis
    addresses the relative performance of these two investment approaches. In addition to these two investment processes, the investment community also focuses on the distinction betweenBottom Up” and “Top Down.” A manager who emphasizes individual stocks is said to be Bottom Up, and a manager who...
    Premium 6206 Words 25 Pages
  • Comparative Analysis of Top–Down and Bottom–Up Methodologies for Multi–Agent System Design
    Sciences Institute Univ. of Southern California Marina del Rey, CA vcrespi@calstatela.edu ABSTRACT galstyan@isi.edu lerman@isi.edu Traditionally, top-down and bottom-up design approaches have competed with each other in Algorithmics and Software Engineering. In the top-down approach...
    Premium 1931 Words 8 Pages
  • Corre
    and budgets * Reconcile differences between top-down and bottom-up estimates Why estimating time and cost is important * Estimates are needed to support good decisions * Estimates are needed to schedule work activities * Estimates are needed to determine how long the project...
    Premium 4283 Words 18 Pages
  • Project Management Exam 1
    , changing baseline schedule and budget)? 10. Identify and briefly describe the major methods of top-down estimating. 11. Identify and briefly describe the major methods of bottom-up estimating.  12. Under what conditions would the top-down approach to estimating project times and costs...
    Premium 2264 Words 10 Pages
  • Nothing
    CHAPTER 11 AN INTRODUCTION TO SECURITY VALUATION Answers to Questions 1. The top-down valuation process begins by examining the influence of the general economy on all firms and the security markets. The next step is to analyze the various industries in light of the economic environment...
    Premium 2187 Words 9 Pages
  • Creme de la crem
    is meant by the top-down and the bottom-up approaches to budgeting. Which problems need to be tackled in each case? (4 points) Top-down Early phases: Allocating budgets to subunits (rough estimation / fast) Bottom-up Later phases: Collating detailed estimates into budgets (Precise budgets...
    Premium 2060 Words 9 Pages
  • Project Management
    Document under Version Control     Cost Estimating Project cost estimating is usually performed by summing estimates for individual project elements into a project total. Bottom-up estimates are often prepared by contractors to support their proposal bid process Top-down estimates use rules...
    Premium 3465 Words 14 Pages
  • Country Ri Sk Measurement
    , based upon an unleverd beta of 0.95 (estimated using aerospace companies listed globally) and Embraer’s debt to equity ratio of 19.01%. For more on the rationale for bottom-up betas read the companion paper on estimating risk parameters. 13 The average inflation rate in Brazil between 1998 and...
    Premium 10065 Words 41 Pages
  • Counting with the Crowd
    as the absolute difference between the estimated fraction and the ground-truth result of each experiment using all 1000 HITs in each experiment. We break the results down by the batch size of the various approaches. We see that when using labeling, getting multiple labels per item does not...
    Premium 12431 Words 50 Pages
  • Time Estimates
    widely from the top-down ones. In fact, it's more likely that the reverse is true. Instead, use the top-down estimates to challenge the validity of the bottom-up estimates, and to refine them as appropriate. Comparative Estimating With comparative estimating, you look at the time it took to do...
    Premium 5744 Words 23 Pages
  • Sensation and Perception by Goldstein 8th Edition: Chapter 1
    and culminating in the behavioral responses of perceiving, recognizing, and acting. 3. What is the role of higher-level or “cognitive” processes in perception? Be sure you understand the difference between bottom-up and top-down processing. 4. What does it mean to say that perception can be...
    Premium 8898 Words 36 Pages
  • Math2881 Student-Made Revision Questions and Answers
    can be virtually impossible to understand how the prediction was made. What are the two types of models for estimating credit risk on loan portfolios and when are they generally used? Give one example of each, and specify the inputs of the examples. Bottom-up models, also known as causal models...
    Premium 2436 Words 10 Pages
  • Ifrs
    Proposal Time value of money -Discount rate Reflects characteristics of insurance contract liability Risk adjustment “The maximum amount the insurer would rationally pay to be relieved of the risk…” Residual margin Residual margin locked in at Inception IASB Tentative View Guidance: top-down and bottom-up...
    Premium 1916 Words 8 Pages
  • Frm Leve1
    Statements, 2010 FRM Part I Page 31 of 39 • • • • Actuarial approaches  Empirical loss distributions  Parametric loss distributions  Extreme value theory Compare and contrast top-down and bottom-up approaches to measuring operational risk. Describe ways to hedge against catastrophic...
    Premium 9759 Words 40 Pages