Acceleration of Gravity Using Smart Timers: To calculate the acceleration of gravity using the... Smart Timers Steven Ge AP Physics B1, Per. 7, JSerra Catholic High School Advisor: Mr. Darling, Dana. Sep 11, 2014 Abstract The purpose of this lab is to calculate the acceleration of gravity using the Smart Timers. Drops of ball of equal size and start drops at one hundred centimeter height, the amount of time was counted used the Smart Timers. Repeat the same procedure...
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Marchessault Physics Lab LR Tuesday 8-9:55 Due 02/26/15 Experiment #1 Free Fall Experiment Abstract In this... experiment we studied the motion of an object in free fall, that is an object being dropped from a certain height to Earth’s surface. In this experiment we tested the idea that no matter what the size, shape, color, etc. of the object if it would still experience the same constant acceleration throughout its fall (short distance). The constant downward acceleration it experiences is due to Earth’s...
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Determination of the Acceleration Due to Gravity By A Good Student Abstract The acceleration... due to gravity, g, was determined by dropping a metal bearing and measuring the free-fall time with a pendulum of known period. The measured value is 9.706 m/s2 with a standard deviation of 0.0317, which does not fall within the range of known terrestrial values. Centrifugal forces and altitude variations cannot account for the discrepancy. The calculation is very sensitive to the measured drop...
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Lab II, Problem 3: Projectile Motion and Velocity Oct. 06, 2013 Physics 1301W, Professor: Hanany, TA: Vladimir... Abstract A ball is tossed obliquely. The vectors of position and velocity are measured. The acceleration is calculated. Introduction A toy company is now making an instructional videotape on how to predict the position. Therefore, in order to make the prediction accurate, how the horizontal and vertical components of a ball’s position as it flies through the air should...
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AIM: Finding the gravitational field strength by using a simple harmonic motion of a spring and slotted masses. INTRODUCTION: When a mass suspended from a... spring is displaced, due to the acceleration, kg s-2, from its equilibrium and released it will oscillate up and down with a kind of motion called simple harmonic motion, shm. The period (T), time taken to measure for one complete oscillation, of this motion is: m/kg...
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LABORATORY REPORT Acceleration Due to Gravity Table of contents Objective... 1 Equipment 1 Procedures 1 Recorded data, calculated results, and graphs 1 Discussion 3 Conclusions 3 Objective In this project we attempted to confirm that the acceleration due...
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Sample Formal Laboratory Report for Physics on the Picket Fence Lab INTRODUCTION: Purpose: The purpose of... this experiment is to verify the acceleration due to gravity using the picket fence with a LabPro and probeware. Theory: All objects, regardless of mass, fall with the same acceleration due to gravity assuming that there is no air resistance. Objects thrown upward or downward and those released from rest are falling freely once they are released. Any freely falling object experiences...
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Investigation 2.5: Acceleration Due to Gravity of Different Masses SPH 4CI-01 Al Einstein, James Maxwell, Isaac... Newton, James Watt Mrs. Joldwcks Due Date: July 19, 2008 Cut-Off Date: July 21, 2008 Purpose: To determine if the mass of a falling object affects its acceleration rate. Hypothesis: The greater the mass of an object, the greater its rate of acceleration because more massive objects have more gravitational force exerted on them by the Earth. Materials:...
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(CIDEB) Physics LAB REPORT Uniform Rectilinear Motion Teacher: Patrick Morris Alejandra... Castillejos Longoria Group: 205 ID: 1663878 Abstract The purpose of this experiment, was to prove the concept of the uniform linear motion by using an air track. With this, we demonstrated the impulse and change in momentum, the conservation of energy and the linear motion. We basically learnt to calculate the distance/time, acceleration/time, and...
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Is gravity always 9.8m/s2?? INTRODUCTION: A simple pendulum consists of a mass m swinging back and forth along a circular arc at the end of a... string of negligible mass. A pendulum is a weight suspended from a pivot so that it can swing freely. Gravity is the pull that two bodies of mass exert on one another. There are several simple experiments that will allow you to calculate the acceleration due to gravity of a falling object. A simple pendulum can determine this acceleration. The only variables...
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Determine the acceleration in a quick sprint. Question What would the participant’s acceleration be if he/she sprints forward... in a positive direction? Hypothesis/Prediction When a person sprints forward, it means he/she speeds up. Consequently, the acceleration should be positive. When the velocity accelerates at a constant rate, the acceleration should remain constant. Therefore, if the participant is moving toward a positive direction and the speed increases, then the acceleration should be positive...
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interpretation of the Speed of Sound IB Physics HL Lab report Physics HL coursework... 2008Grade 7 Download or Print Add To Collection 8.4K READS 18 READCASTS 1 EMBED VIEWS Published by xb08 Follow Search TIP Press ⌘F to search anywhere in the document. Info and Rating Category: School Work > Essays & Theses Rating: Upload Date: 09/20/2010 Copyright: Attribution Non-commercial Tags: Lab Reportspeed of soundib physics hl Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Word Doc...
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Projectile Motion PHYS111 Formal Report 2 University of Canterbury Campbell Moulder Abstract The force of gravity... is said to be a constant of 9.81 ms-2 (3). This can be proved by measuring the projectile motion of a bouncy ball and plotting a ∆Vertical Velocity vs. Time graph, the gradient of which should equal the constant force (acceleration due to) of gravity. Our gradient value of 10.26±0.49 ms-2 is consistent with the actual value of 9.81 ms-2. Introduction A projectile is an...
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February 24, 2012 Lab #8: Newton’s Second Law and Acceleration Due to Gravity Purpose: To... observe a few effects of constant force and varying mass, constant mass and varying force and varying both mass and force and relate them to Newton’s Second Law. Apparatus: Theory and Background: Newton’s Second Law of Motion states that the acceleration of an object is produced by a net force that is directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force, in the same direction as the net force...
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Lab 3. Dc circuits and Ohm’s law of measurments Helina Wolfe Tannaz Farnoudi and Najah Rouse Physics 246-205 Professor Joe... Renaud 09/23/13 Word count:1453 Abstract: The aim of this experiment was to understand the relationship between the variables of Ohm’s law and how they are part of an operation of an electric circuit. Introduction: This experiment was done in two parts. The first part consisted of understanding how to determine the current, voltage and resistance...
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Physics 211 Experiment 1: Free Fall - Determining the acceleration of gravity Prior to Lab: Derive... the numbered equations (Equations 1, 2 and 3) in the lab instructions using the definitions of velocity and acceleration (a=dv/dt and v=dy/dt). Object: The object of this experiment is to determine the value of the acceleration of gravity by measuring the rate of acceleration of a freely falling object. In addition, one will be able to compare theory with experiment for constantly accelerated...
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Physics Lab Report Experiment M3 Centripetal Force School: La Salle College Class: 6G... Group members (Group 7): Carson Ho, Tang Yui Hong, John Yu, Justin Kwong Date: 1 / 10 / 2014 Report is written by: Tang Yui Hong 6G (27) Title Centripetal Force Objective To verify the equation for centripetal force Apparatus Instrument Descriptions 1 rubber bung circular, cylinder screw nuts and wire hook / 1 small paper marker / 1 rule 1 metre safety goggles / adhesive...
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between mass and acceleration Stage 1 - Planning Title: Investigating acceleration – How does changing the mass of an object... change its acceleration? Introduction: As the speed of moving object and rate, the forces acting on the object, the mass of the object, and gravitational force of it might affect the acceleration, I will investigate about the mass of the object. Aim: I will try to answer the question “How does changing the mass of an object change its acceleration?” which is to find...
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Using a simple pendulum to find the acceleration due to gravity/g Task 1 Aim: To find the... acceleration due to gravity/g Objective: To find the relationship between the length of simple pendulum and the period oscillation Hypothesis: The longer the length of the simple pendulum, the longer the period of oscillation will take. Variables: a) Independent- the length of the pendulum; b) Dependent- the time it takes for 20 oscillations; c) Control - the mass of pendulum. Task 2 References...
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Introduction. Friction was studied in this lab. The experiments were conducted using a clipboard glued to various surfaces with... diffirentiating frictional properties. In order for us to test the varying Static friction or Kinetic friction we used a Newton force gauge, some wooden blocks, and a metal weight. The actual experiment consisted of two parts. The first part measured the net force, or more specific the net force required to overcome the kinetic friction coefficient, to move the block across...
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How to write a lab report Let’s take as an example a free-fall experiment. You drop a small steel ball from various heights... and use an electronic timer to measure how long it takes the ball to hit the ground. From this you calculate the final speed of the ball using v = 2x/t. You believe that the ball will have a constant acceleration of “g,” 9.8 m/s2. This will be seen if you graph velocity vs. time and get a straight line with a slope of 9.8. You end up with a table of data giving distances...
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Impulse and Momentum Lab Part I: As the first lab of the Physics 2 curriculum, our class completed a... lab experiment that introduced us students to a new concept that would be a foundation to the future topics that we learn in this class. In this lab activity, we used a lab cart on a flat track to compare the collision of the cart with a force sensor with and without the plunger during different trials. The materials that we would need for this activity are a lab cart on a flat track, a timer...
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Grade 11 physics: SPH3U1-01 | Physics Lab Report | Specific Heat Capacity of Brass | | Jin... Jin Shi | 2012/12/6 | Instructor: Mr. Nailer | I. Introduction The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a solid body depends on its change in temperature (ΔT), its mass (m), and an intrinsic characteristic of the material forming the body called specific heat (cp). The heat is calculated from the equation II. Purpose The purpose of this laboratory is to determine...
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MAPUA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS EXPERIMENT 201 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER GRADE GRADE Name: CAYETANO, Ma. Frederiza Anne... M. Program/Year: MSE-2 Course Code/Section: PHY11/B2 Student number: 2010102844 Group number: 2 Date of Performance: July 27, 2013 Date of Submission: August 3, 2013 Sir Bernard Aguirre Instructor GRAPH AND CALCULATIONS A. PART 1: DETERMINING THE FORCE, WORK AND POWER OF THE FAN CART F=wp+wa W=F∙s Pave=Wt where: F = Force of the Fan...
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for a body that is undergoing centripetal acceleration. Background Information An object moving in the same direction is not... necessarily undergoing acceleration. If the object changes speed while moving in the same direction there is acceleration (or deceleration). On the other hand, if the object moves at a constant speed in the same direction, there is no acceleration. This does not mean that constant speed always indicates no acceleration, however. An object that moves at a constant...
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and Acceleration (Video Analysis) NAME Abstract: With using the new software this lab was different than the rest. We... determined many solutions using video analysis. We used a frictionless track with a “car” and recorded using loggerpro software. We used this software to determine average velocity and instantaneous velocity. With this information we than discovered the average acceleration, mine was .2115. After that we were able to find δa, then finally the free-fall acceleration, I got...
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SPECIFIC GRAVITY BY DENSITY BOTTLE AIM OF THE EXPERIMENT:- To determine the Specific Gravity of soil a particle... passing through 4.75 mm IS sieve using Density bottle. APPARATUS REQUIRED:- i. Density bottle of 100 mm capacity. ii. Desiccators. iii. Balance with sensitivity of 0.01 gm. THEORY:- Specific Gravity is the ratio of the mass in air of given volume of dry soil solids to the mass of equal volume of distilled water at 4 o C. Or ratio of unit weight of soil...
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Relationship Involving Acceleration, Net Force, and Mass Giho Park Purpose The purpose of this lab investigation is to... observe the relationship among the net force, mass, and acceleration of an object. Hypothesis/Prediction Part A If the net force increases with a constant mass, then the acceleration would increase, because the force would push the object to increase the velocity. Part B If the mass of the cart increases with a constant net force, then the acceleration would increase ...
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Free-Fall Lab Assignment Nishad Gothoskar Physics Online Experimental Design: In order to design an experiment to measure... free-fall acceleration, the researcher must construct a wooden tower with height 10 meters along with a trap door system to release a tennis ball from rest position. In this case, the researcher must measure the time the ball takes to free-fall from rest position to the ground. Using this info and the formula: s=vit+ 12at2 s = 10 m vi = 0 m/s The researcher will...
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HSC PHYSICS 2011 HSC PHYSICS 2011 PENDULUM MOTION BY NATHAN LOCKE Image taken from... http://www.practicalphysics.org/go/Experiment_480.html Pendulum Motion Aim: To determine the rate of acceleration due to gravity by using a pendulum. Background Information: Equation One: T=2πlg Where T = the period of the pendulum (s). This is the time taken for the pendulum to return to its starting position. l = length of the pendulum g = the rate of acceleration due to gravity (ms-2) * In...
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spring scale, which measure force in Newtons (kg x m/s2), and then the block is moving. Different masses (kg), or the measure of the resistance of an object... to changes in its motion due to a force, of an object have different accelerations (∆v/∆t). The more massive the object is, the smaller its acceleration. Newton's third law of force says that if two object interact, the force F12 exerted by object 1 on object 2 is equal and opposite to the force F21 exerted by object 2 on object 1...
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Acceleration Due to Gravity Conducted on October 6th, 2014 Objective: The object of the experiment is to... determine whether or not objects fall freely at the same rate and speed. Measure and calculate the time in which it takes random objects to hit the ground from a certain height and determine if the objects have the same rate of motion or not. Materials: 1. Meter Stick 2. Stopwatch 3. Wallet 4. Quarter 5. Tape 6. Hot sauce packet from Chinese food delivery 7. Container of wipes...
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discrepancies for inelastic collisions were 58.33% and 81.81% for the equal mass and unequal mass respectively. Both of the percent discrepancies were... greater than 60% which indicates inelastic collisions are not as inefficient in conserving energy due to a loss in energy. The percent discrepancies for the equal and unequal mass elastic collisions were 36.36% and 56.25 % respectively. Both of the percent discrepancies for the elastic collisions were less than the percent discrepancies in inelastic...
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Samantha Mackey 13. 2nd hour PHYSICS LAB REPORT: SPEED OF SOUND Purpose: In this... lab, we will be doing 3 major things: 1) Collecting and organizing data to obtain resonant points in a closed pipe, 2) measure the length of a closed-pipe resonator, and 3) analyze the data to determine the speed of sound. Procedure: 1. Fill the graduated cylinder nearly to the top with water, with a tall glass tube open at both ends (the water level with act as the closed end). 2. Determine...
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Free fall and the acceleration due to gravity Problem/Question: How do you measure the... acceleration of a falling object? Hypothesis: by measuring velocities of a falling ball then applying the data into equations numerous times, the results should approach to the acceleration. Variables: A: Independent Velocity B:Dependant Acceleration C:Constant Distance (photo gates) Materials: Photo gates, Clay ball, Photo gates machine. ...
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Physics Lab Report: Parallel Force Aim: To test the principle of moments. Apparatus: Metre rule with holes... drilled at the 25cm, 50cm and 75cm mark, 50g masses 50mm long bolt with a diameter of approximately 5mm, retort stand, boss head and clamp, 0-10 N spring balance, electronic pan balance ,wire or string for suspending masses from the metre rule, two bulldog clips. Part A: Balancing a constant moment. Procedure: 1. The experiment is set up by first placing the bolt through the rule, then...
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Keith Beachy College Physics 1 Lab - Section 001 CP1 Lab Report - Projectile Motion... October 12, 2009 The purpose of Lab Assignment 1 was to analyze projectile motion. In doing so, we determined the initial velocity of the ball shot horizontally from the spring loaded projectile launcher. Also, we verified the angle at which the projection of the ball would produce a maximum range. Lastly, we predicted the range that a ball would travel at a certain angle, theta. Projectile motion...
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ballet dancers you think of grace and beauty. While you watch a dancer dance you never think of the physics and mathematics behind their every... move. Physics is described as a thing that is all about measurement, and that if you know the units of measurement that physics uses and how they work you will understand everything else you’ll learn about (Dennis and Moring 1). The textbook definition of physics is “the study of matter and energy and their relationships” (Zitzewitz 1). Ballet cannot be defined...
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Abstract In this lab experiment the range equation will be used to calculate range of the launched rocket, initial velocity and distance... traveled. Various projectiles will be tested at various angles and table heights for experiment one. Results will be compared to initial calculations. Despite human error and calculation error, the results still correlated with the hypothesis. Introduction Background Acceleration is constant at 9.8 m/s2 because of the force of gravity. For experiment 1 the...
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EXPERIMENT 2 Measurement of g: Use of a simple pendulum OBJECTIVE: To measure the acceleration due to gravity... using a simple pendulum. Textbook reference: pp10-15 INTRODUCTION: Many things in nature wiggle in a periodic fashion. That is, they vibrate. One such example is a simple pendulum. If we suspend a mass at the end of a piece of string, we have a simple pendulum. Here, the to and fro motion represents a periodic motion used in times past to control the motion of grandfather and cuckoo...
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ABSTRACT: The lab of one dimensional motion is a series of experiments that deal with different types of motion in a single direction. In the... first experiment, one dimensional motion of a small cart on an air track is measured in a one photogate system. The acceleration was calculated by the infrared light emitting electrode of the photogate sensing the slacks on the picket fence. The calculation for gravity yielded 9.63 m/s^2, which is consistent with the accepted value of 9.8m/s^2. In the...
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velocity and acceleration due to gravity of a picket fence and to verify the acceleration... due to gravity using the picket fence with Logger Pro and Photogate. Data: Trial # 1 2 3 4 5 6 Slope (m/s^2) 9.80 9.78 9.87 9.77 9.84 9.83 Accel. g (m/sec2) 9.80 9.78 9.87 9.77 9.84 9.83 Minimum Maximum Average Acceleration (m/s^2) 9.77 9.87 9.82 Acceleration due to gravity, g 9.82+/- 0.10 m/s^2 Precision 1.018 % Sample Calculations: To get the average acceleration, you take the...
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defines that the pressure on a fluid is isotropic, meaning that the force/pressure in any direction applied on the liquid is the same in all directions.... Hydrostatic Pressure Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure exerted by a fluid at equilibrium due to the gravitational pull. The fluid is known as hydrostatic fluid. The pressure can be calculated from the control volume analysis of a small cube of fluid. It is known that pressure is force applied per unit area P = F/A, and the onlyforce acting...
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Lab Report - The Simple Pendulum Name: XXXXXXX XXXXX XXXXXXX Date: January 18, 2013 Objective: Gain insight on how... scientists come to understand natural phenomena through theoretical and experimental data by determining the Period of a Simple Pendulum. This experiment will introduce us to the processes of data collection and the procedures used for data /error analysis. Theory: A Period of motion is a physical quantity associated with any cyclical natural phenomenon and is defined...
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| Buoyant ForceB=Δmg=ρf VobjgThis equation was used to calculate the buoyant force of an object. | Experimental Procedure: ProcedureA: * Setup similar... to the spring constant lab * Use the same or a similar spring from the spring constant lab * Find the spring constant of the smallest spring used from previous lab if not already foundB: * Use the same metal rod from the Error of Propagation experiment and attach it to the bottom of the spring * Fully submerged the metal rod in a beaker...
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CHM1032L pre/post lab instructions Preparation is a key to success in this lab. For this reason, you are required to thoroughly... read through the experiment information presented in the lab manual, and complete a pre-lab for each experiment you do. The prelab must be completed prior to the day of the experiment. Each Friday I will ask to see your completed prelab before I allow you to enter the lab. If you have not finished the pre-lab, I will not allow you to enter the lab and you will receive...
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conservation of mechanical energy Section: 8 Name: Ahmed Atari University ID: 201103848 Instructor: Ahmed Zainelabdin Submission date: May 1, 2014... Objective: the purpose of this lab is to investigate the law of conservation of energy. This can be achieved by measuring both potential and kinetic energy through the experiment conducted. Back ground: Kinetic energy is said to be the energy of motion. Kinetic energy can be defined...
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Free Fall Lab Natalie Soria Lab Partners: Ryan Michaely Iqra Haji Yan Huang 1. Purpose: The purpose of this... experiment is to determine the acceleration due to gravity by observing the motion of a free falling object. 2. Equipment Used: A. Timer Switch B. Time-of-Flight Accessory C. Control Box D. AC adapter E. Drop Box F. Steel ball G. Solid gold ball H. Big plastic ball 3. Method Used: 1) Place the steel ball on the...
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Hunter Zaun Feb. 12, 2013 Mrs. Rarig Physics Projectile Range Versus Angle Intro: First off, what projectile motion is motion in two... dimensions in both X & Y directions. The only force on the projectile is gravity. With gravity being a presence and a factor in our everyday lives and in this experiment, gravity will push down on the projectile forcing it back down to the ground. For example if someone shot a cannon straight and there was no gravity then the cannon would keep traveling at...
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The purpose of this lab report is to differentiate between of Newton’s Third Law and Newton’s Second Law. Newton’s Third Law... states that all forces come in pairs and that the two forces in a pair act on different objects and are equal in strength and opposite in direction. Newton’s Second Law states that the acceleration of an object is proportional to the net force and inversely proportional to the mass of the object being accelerated. Using calculation equations for acceleration, force, and percent...
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TENS 2146 Electric Devices and Measurements Lab 3 Current and Voltage This report was prepared by: L. Wall Fall 2009... Prof. R. Alba-Flores Team Members: J. White, L. Wall Conducted on: September 17, 2009 Submitted on : September 24, 2009 Abstract: In this lab students experimented with light emitting diodes. The student built a basic circuit with two LED's and resistors in parallel. The results showed that the voltage is the same in parallel. The items that were in series had...
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Honors 1st block October 4, 2012 Balloon Powered Car Problem: In order to create a race car that can travel a minimum of eight meters powered by a... nine inch balloon. We need incorporate Newton's Law of Motion including speed, velocity, and acceleration. Hypothesis: If a car were to be made out of homemade materials, then it would be possible for it to travel 8 meters powered by a nine inch balloon. Independent Variable: building the car from homemade materials. Dependent Variable: The...
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Antônia C. Physics HL Aspects of Physics Case Study: Amusement Parks On the 26th of February, 2011 our class went on a field... trip in order to analyse the aspects of physics present in amusement parks. I chose two aspects based on my favourite rides: ‘Kaboom’ (which works based on free-fall) and the roller coaster. The Physics of Roller Coasters How does a Roller Coaster work? Roller coasters have no engines (although many still tend to think they do) and are thus not propelled around the...
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the same. This will then interfere the consistency of the data. The angle of 20o will be set by using a protractor. Type of inclined plane Even though... friction is neglected in this experiment, by using a different type of inclined plane, the acceleration of the metal weight will be slightly modified, thus the initial force exerted by the metal weight on the domino will also be altered. The same wooden plane will be utilized for the entire experiment. Starting point of the metal weight If the...
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Technology Ohm’s law & resistors in parallel & in series Lab 4 Class: PHY 1434-E475 Due date: March,... 13 20144 Group Names: Hisham Sageer Objectives: Our object is to confirm Ohm’s law by analyzing the dependence of the electrical current as a function of voltage and as a function of resistance. Also, we studied the current flow and voltage in series and parallel. Finally, the lab determined the equivalence resistance of series and parallel combination of resistors...
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the pistons into useful rotary motion. In this lab we will measure the acceleration of the piston of a lawn mower engine at... various speeds. The results exemplify a simple relation between speed and acceleration for kinematically restricted motions, which will discover. An adjustable slider-crank apparatus and a computer simulation will show you some eﬀects of changing the proportions of the slider-crank mechanism on piston velocity and acceleration. Other linkages and cam mechanisms may also be used...
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thrill all comes from the acceleration and the feeling of weightlessness that they produce. Roller coasters thrill people because of their... ability to accelerate them downward one moment and upwards the next; leftwards one moment and rightwards the next. How does this thrill machine work? There are two ways that this question will be answered. First, through the basic principles and then through a more advanced explanation. Roller coaster rides involve a great deal of physics. The ride often begins...
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The Effects of Force and Mass on an Object’s Acceleration Abstract: In this lab there were two principals... investigated. The first was the relationship between applied force and acceleration. The second was the relationship between mass and acceleration. To study these two relationships, my partners and I used a dynamic cart with added mass on it. This cart was then attached to a pulley system on a “frictionless track” where it was pulled by a string bearing mass over the edge...
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was to acquaint the students with basic laboratory procedures, methods, and techniques; to introduce the use of basic laboratory measuring devices; to... demonstrate different methods of manipulation of numerical quantities. DENSITY AND SPECIFIC GRAVITY Materials and Methods Part 1: Density of an Unknown Solid 1. We first were asked from our laboratory instructor to attain an unknown solid and were asked to note down the number of the solid. 2. Determine the mass of the unknown solid...
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The Physics of Field Goal Kicking Physics is involved in all of our daily activities. Most of the time, however,... physics is overlooked and never acknowledged. It is important to understand different aspects of physics because physics tells us how and why certain events occur. By definition, physics is the search for laws that describe the most fundamental aspects of nature: matter, energy, force, motion, heat, light, and other phenomena. There are many different sectors of physics, but we will...
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