whenselectingsamples for humanservicesresearch? Imagine that you are going to design a survey that will be administered to consumers/clients in your field (e.g., nursing home residents, youth mentors, single mothers); how would you go about sampling from this population in order to generate...
. This error can be minimized by collecting a
representative sample and a larger sample.
Systematic (non-sampling) Error: A statistical error caused by human error.
These errors can include data entry errors, biased questions in a
questionnaire, samplebias and false information provided by...
biaswhen designing a study. (More details
on biases and how to avoid them in Chapter 6.)
Experimental versus observational strategies
Although an experiment is an important step in establishing
causality, it is often neither feasible nor ethical to subject human beings
to risk factors in...
* Accurate and reliable results
* Properly selected samples give sufficiently accurate results
* Accuracy depends on how homogeneous the sample is – samples of a highly homogeneous population can be smaller than samples of a more heterogeneous population. Even when populations have...
Reliability is vital when trying to find out information about large target populations. To avoid poor reliability, the sample chosen to participate in the research should be representative of the whole target population. The correct target sample must be established so that reliability is...
May interpret question differently from what was intended by the researcher
Errors in survey research
Random sampling error
Statistical fluctuation that occurs because of change variation in the elements selected for the sample. Can be reduced by increasing the sample size
How much do tourists...
of their theories makes random samples less of a concern
How do different research designs affect howyou will acquire human participants?
Setting in which the research will take place
Special needs of the particular research
Any institutional, departmental, and ethical policies...
experiences to create a "big picture," Horizon Research International can gather the right people and elicit focus group discussions that are both spontaneous and focused on obtaining the information you need. Whatever your need…
* Exploring reactions to product or service concepts...
if there is limited time and resources. It involves asking anyone that is around and available to be in research. This can be done by stopping people on the street etc. It is necessary to be aware of avoiding biaswhenselecting participants.
• Snowball Sampling: in cases where it is difficult to...
service. Only when you’ve sampled effectively canyou safely generalize your research results to the population of interest; depending on your research question, you need to select a certain type of sample, because some types of samples are more suitable for certain research problems. In this chapter...
* Smaller sample size
* Results difficult to replicate
* Information about why and how
* More in-depth, flexible
* Researcher may only know roughly what he / she is looking for
* Can be used to determine the focus of follow-up, quantitative inquiries
A research strategy is a...
frame which could be a list of all the chidren below three as recorded by Tomkin`s County. Youcan then struggle with the sample size.
The question of how large a sample should be is a difficult one. Sample size can be determined by various constraints. For example, the available funding may...
, and community leaders, as well as researchers.
The guidelines or criteria given below can help in the process of selection.
a) Criteria for selecting a research topic
1. Relevance: The topic you choose should be a priority problem: Questions to be asked include...
. Statistics: Descriptive measures based upon a probability sample.
Respondent: An element or member of the
Fairfax County Department of Systems Management for HumanServices
Economic and Demographic Research 12011 Government Center Parkway Suite 222 Fairfax, Virginia 22035 Phone: 703-324...
hand and planned on how to avoid it. A means of selecting the units of analysis must be designed to avoid the more obvious forms of bias. Another example would be where you would like to know the average income of some community and you decide to use the telephone numbers to select a sample of the...
answers or un-contactable sample
Must always account for non-response whenselecting the sample size
Response rates in social science seem to be in decline
Can increase response rate by making questionnaires as short and as easy to read as possible, use adequate tools for the population, offer...
be used to select the random sample. It is normal to start the numbering at 0, so that when 0 appears in a list of random numbers it can be used. Sometimes it is not possible to draw up a sampling frame. For example, if you wanted to take a random sample of all Sainsbury’s customers it would be...
made. This type of interview allows an interviewer to prepare
job-related questions in advance and then complete a standardized interviewee evaluation form.
Sample questions that might be asked of all applicants for a production maintenance management
opening are as follows:
l Tell me howyou...
Q2 Discuss two strategies that could be used to avoidbiaswhen gathering data on the aged or another group you have studied.
To avoidbias there is a range of strategies that could be implemented. The researcher should not pick a method of research because they prefer it, but rather...