of three elements: the id, ego, and superego.
o John B. Watson
o Rejected the study of the mind and mental experiences to explain human behavior
o It suggests that all behavior can be explained by environmental causes ratherthan by internal...
observed and measured
* Focused on measurable and observablebehaviors
* Proposed that the behavior is a “response” to the different “stimuli” in our environment
* Stimuli (environment) BLACK BOX (mind) response
* According to Watson...
Evolution of Psychology
* Classical Period-Greek Philosophers
Socrates –The Grandfather of Psychology. Is his belief that ratherthan filling a void of knowledge with magic or religious explanations that it was critical to accept that void. He set out to understand the natural world in a more...
Freud, relates to the unconscious mind as a determinant of behavior; behaviorism, known as an extreme form of functionalism, focused on observablebehavior; humanism, which explains the concept of self-actualization and on the individual itself; while cognitivism focused on the study of mental processes...
judgment in which subjective experience differs fromobjective reality.
* Max Wertheimer (1880 – 1943)
* Gestalt psychology: psychological approach that emphasizes that we often perceive the whole ratherthan sum of parts.
* Mind imposes organization on what it perceives, so ppl don’t...
study. The definition of psychology proposed by behaviorists also had certain limitations. They only focused o observablebehaviors and ignored the role of mental processes. Also, they undermined the role of unconscious mind and heredity in behavior. This is why this definition was modified
experiences of individuals ratherthan developing theories on predicting behavior.
Modern Approaches to Psychology
← Behavioral Approach:
← Psychoanalytic Approach:
▪ The unconscious mind
← Humanistic Approach:
▪ Free will and self...
methods to the topics Freud had studied: personality, motivation, and abnormal behavior.
Between 1913 and the late 1920s. Founded by John B. Watson (1878–1958), behaviorism is a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observablebehavior...
Principles of Psychology: focused on relation bet. Behavior and experience.
• Functionalism included introspection and behavioral observations. Asked about functions.
• Adaptive behavior patterns are maintained if they're successful- become easy by time (typing, riding a bike.)
• John B. Watson...
at Columbia University. His thoughts were based on observing behavior unlike others that studied the unconscious mind.
“According to John Watson, psychology should be the science of observablebehavior, psychology as the behaviorist views it is a purely objective experimental branch of natural...
structuralists and functionalists deviated too much fromobjective science. Put simply, Watson said that psychology should focus on the study of behavior because he believed that behavior was not the result of internal mental processes, but rather the result of how we respond to stimuli from the...
and theories from different schoolsratherthan holding to any singular outlook.
The following are some of the major schools of thought that have influenced our knowledge and understanding of psychology:
Structuralism and Functionalism
Structuralism was the first school of psychology, and focused...
3.) BEHAVIORISM (Watson) Observablebehavior (Pavlov) injected optimism. Emphasis is on how the environment affects behavior.
4.) GESTALT (Wertheimer) "Form or shape" To underscore belief that we perceive wholes ratherthan a combination of individual elements.
psychologists believed that psychology should be concerned with behaviors. They stressed that behaviors are observable and they are not conscious experience that is subjective and only known to the person involved.
Psychoanalysis was developed by Dr. Sigmund Freud. He developed this theory explaining the...
perception, memory, or judgment in which subjective experience differs fromobjective reality
36 Gestalt Psychology
Emphasizes we often perceive the whole ratherthan the sum of the parts.
37 Jean Piaget
Observed children over a time. Found that children go through a...
. Watson was an advocate of scientific scrutiny but for him, covert behavior, including mental processes, could not be studied scientifically. The emphasis, from his perspective, should only be on overt or observablebehavior. Behaviourists believed that human behavior can be understood by examining the...
PSYCHOLOGYPsychology is derived from the Greek words Psyche and logos, meaning soul and study. To Greeks, Psychology is simply a study of the soul.
Psychology as the scientific study of human behavior and mental processes. Scientific because it uses the steps in a scientific method in its...
within psychiatry and much of clinical psychology during the first part of the 20th century. Early psychodynamic approaches focused on the interrelationship of the mind (psyche) and mental, emotional or motivational forces within the mind that interact to shape a personality. Dr. Sigmund Freud, who...
determining behavior and personality.
Behaviorism- psychology should focus its scientific investigation strictly on overbehavior-observablebehaviors that could be objectively measured and verified.
First championed by John B. Watson and developed by B.F. Skinner
Rejected the emphasis on...
Introduction and Research Methods
What is Psychology?
The science of behavior and mental processes
Behavior—observable actions of a person or animal
Mind—thoughts, feelings, sensations, perceptions, memories, dreams, motives and other subjective experiences
Science—an objective way...