• Shallow Foudations.
    Design Examples (FHWA-SA-97-077) GEC No. 4 – Ground Anchors and Anchored Systems (FHWA-SA-99-015) GEC No. 5 – Evaluation of Soil and Rock Properties (FHWA-IF-02-034) GEC No. 7 – Soil Nailing (under development) - This Circular is intended to be a stand-alone document geared toward providing the practicing...
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  • Pollution
    SOIL POLLUTION INTRODUCTION Soil is the thin layer of organic and inorganic materials that covers the Earth's rocky surface. The organic portion, which is derived from the decayed remains of plants and animals, is concentrated in the dark uppermost topsoil. The inorganic portion made up of rock fragments...
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  • Natural Resources
    NATURAL RESOURCES 1. Define natural resources. How are they classified? The living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic) components of nature which are being used by humans for meeting their requirements are called natural resources. Depending upon their abundance, natural...
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  • Modern Agriculture: Its Effects on the Environment
    Modern Agriculture: Its Effects on the Environment Agriculture has been a major component of the United States economy ever since colonial days, when 9 out of 10 working persons were employed on a farm. Produclivity of American agriculture has tripled since then, and today only 3 percent of our...
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  • Impact of Brick Making to the Environment
    was 50 and researcher employed the questionnaires, documentary review, focus group discussion and observation as the tools for data collection. The major findings explored by this study showed that the land have been badly affected with the brick making activities that takes place within the area and...
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  • Deforestation
    problem which in this case is deforestation explored though the areas interconnectedness with Biodiversity and Conservation Biology as well as the area of Soil and Agriculture. Furthermore the first part contains a relevant environmental awareness and responsibility plan. The second part contains my own “Statement...
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  • Chemistry of Organic and Synthetic Fertilizers
    ARE FERTILIZERS? Fertilizers are any organic or inorganic material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that are added to a soil to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants. A recent assessment found that about 40% to 60% of crop yields are attributable...
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  • Sustainability for Future Generations
    Industrialized farming utilizes an extensive amount of finite resources such as fossil fuels, water, and topsoil at an unsustainable rate and 2) it causes extensive degradation of human, animal and environmental health. The use of fossil fuel in industrial agriculture is far-reaching. Furthermore,...
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  • Geo Noteskihis
    it has lead to only a marginal increase in the forest area Q5: Distinguish between Bangar and Khadar soil? Ans: Bangar Soil 1. It isan old alluvial soil. Khadar Soil 1. It is a newer alluvial soil. 2. It is found away from the rivers 2. It is found close to rivers valleys 3. It is less Fertile...
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  • Designs of Water Harvesting Strutcures
    methods basically fall under three main categories viz.: • • • Surface water collection Ground water collection Augmentation of ground water recharge The methods which are particularly useful in augmenting drinking water availability especially in the rural areas and which can be easily adopted at a moderate...
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  • Genetically Modified Foods
    Genetically Modified Foods: Miracles or Frankenfoods? Imagine, if you will, a world in which you can purchase fruits and vegetable of gargantuan proportions. Where foods never go bad, are always ripe, and stay tasting fresh. A world where crops would be able to resist weeds, insects, and other common...
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  • Soil
    Soil is a natural body consisting of layers (soil horizons) of mineral constituents of variable thicknesses, which differ from the parent materials in their morphological, physical, chemical, and mineralogical characteristics.[1] It is composed of particles of broken rock that have been altered by chemical...
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  • Mr. ADEWUYI BABATUNDE
    EROSION VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT IN MINNA, NIGER STATE By Adewuyi Babatunde CENTER FOR DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT STUDIES FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, MINNA, NIGER STATE +234 8068166939 EMAIL: ADEX22NG@YAHOO.COM Abstract Natural events such as erosion can be hazardous...
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  • Environmental Degradation
    Content: I. Introduction ………………………………………………………………………3 II. Definition and Types of environmental degradation………………………........4-9 III. Causes of environmental degradation...........................................................10-11 IV. Solutions to Environmental Degradation…………………………………………...
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  • Coastal Dunes
    Ecosystems Functioning Case Study 1 – Coastal Dunes 1. What are coastal dunes and how have they been formed? Coastal Dunes are large accumulations of sand located immediately behind the active beach zone. They are formed when sand is deposited onto the shore by wave action, dries out and is blown...
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  • Effect of Flooding and the Solution in Nigeria
    CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION Flooding is one of the major environmental crises one has to contend of within the century. This is especially the case in most wetlands of the world. The reason of this is the general rise in sea level globally, due to global warming as well as the saturated...
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  • Biodiversity
    whereas polar regions support fewer species. Rapid environmental changes typically cause extinctions. One estimate is that less than 1% of the species that have existed on Earth are extant Since life began on Earth, five major mass extinctions and several minor events have led to large and sudden drops in...
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  • Geo Notes
    265 * Latitude- left to right * Longitude- up and down * Direction of flow of a creek- usually towards a bigger river or sea and you can tell the direction by where the origin point is and where it finishes or joins a bigger river. Also the slope. * * Relief is the difference...
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  • Sample Thesis
    under Structural Adjustment………………….. 51 51 52 60 vi 3.4 Empirical Evidence of Environmental Change in Muri Lagoon…………... 3.4.1 Siltation and erosion……………………………………………... 3.4.2 Toxic dinoflagellates………………………………………..…… 3.4.3 Nutrient levels…………………………………………………… 3.4.4 Reclamation of wetlands…………………………………………...
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  • Fish Management
    Resources Conservation Service (formerly the Soil Conservation Service), largely to assist farming operations. In more recent years, the recreational uses of ponds have become more important to pond owners. Regardless of a pond’s intended use, its management can be difficult and complex. Even with careful...
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