• Miss
    examine their use of L1 in their composing in L2 Differences are found between successful and less successful EFL readers in metacognitive knowledge of person/self, task, and strategy not only in quantitative measures, but also in quality, and the combined contribution of the strategy-variables to...
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  • English Language Teaching
    pronunciation and other oral skills | | |2. T is required to be a skillful manipulator, using questions, commands and |The differences between Student’s L1 and L2 should be known by the teacher...
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  • Jet Efficiency
    streams at right angles. To proceed with the analysis make the following assumptions • friction between the impact surface and the water jet is negligible • the magnitude of the jet velocity does not change as the jet is turned 16 EXPERIMENT 4. IMPACT OF A JET Scale adjustment F L2 L3 L1...
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  • Approaches to Language
    awareness of language systems in general develops’.(Soars and Soars 1987:iv) Also it has other advantages. It reinforces L1 by comparing and contrasting it to L2 and It conveys meaning for abstract concepts and explains as well as compares grammar points and highlights differences in word order as...
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  • Designing Second Language Teaching Experiments
    them via L1. The specific predictions of each theory are summarized in Table 1. Furthermore, as the learner gains L2 experience, MT predicts a developmental trend, and relatively later learning of CP. FT/FA predicts that there should be little difference between early and advanced learners in...
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  • Triangulating Translation Perspectives
    designed to investigate the relationship between WM and performance in translation, copying simple clauses in L1, writing in L1, and reading in L2. The research points out that regression models used to verify causal relations did not show a significant influence of WM on translation. However, expert...
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  • The Prospects of Multilingual Education
    mathematics, English language, and reading skills was concerned, there was no substantial difference between providing a limited-Englishproficient student with English-only instruction through grade three and providing them with L1 support for three years. 5 The 1997 Thomas and Collier’s study also...
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  • PRODUCTIVE VOCABULARY KNOWLEDGE AND EVALUATION OF ESL WRITING IN CORPUS-BASED LANGUAGE LEARNING
    differences between the word meaning in each language, i.e., L1 and L2 words may share meaning equivalent, but they have different collocation usages. In order to deal with these words, she suggested that teachers develop strategies for self-learning using guessing in context. In her examples, Hebrew...
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  • Research-Based Best Practices in L2 Literacy Developing Reading Comprehension Skills for English Language Learners
    : Historical perspective of English Language Learners and how to best meet their needs in American schools Guiding Principles of Reading Recovery Benefits of Organizing Curriculum around Big Question Themes Thematic Based Learning Opportunities in both L1 and L2 Literacy Work Stations...
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  • papers
    ™ Application or LinReg/ExpReg™. Discuss the meaning of the y-intercepts and the rate of change. Guide students in a discussion of the differences between linear functions and exponential functions. Have students identify key characteristics of exponential functions and define the function...
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  • Discuss Fromkin on Firla
    , adults have a reference to which they apply the L2 they are exposed to: the L1. It is natural for L2 learners to apply the rules of their L1 to the L2 regarding tense usage, vocabulary (using a dictionary), or general syntactic or semantic contexts. The influence of the L1 on the learning of L2 and...
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  • Lab Report
    length of the test piece. fu = Pult/A1 4.8.Percentage Elongation At Failure: The Percentage Elongation At Failure is obtained by measurement of the fractured test piece and is equal to (L2-L1)100/L1 where L1 = the original length of test piece; L2 = the distance...
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  • metrology
    scale pictured above would normally be on an instrument, and the main and vernier scales would slide relative to each other. The ‘0’ on the vernier scale would be used to take the reading from the main scale. In this example the main scale would read a value that is between 0.4 and 0.6. (Note: it is...
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  • Oral Proficiency of Gujarati Medium Students at Undergraduate Level in English Medium
    carried out with US monolingual English speakers and is mostly correlation rather than experimental. However, the research describes important relationships between oral language and reading proficiency, some of which were tested in this study to see if they extend to L2 learners of English in a...
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  • Classroom Management
    debated and that has seen many changes of fashion over the years. L1 is most useful at beginning and low levels. If students have little or no knowledge of the target language, L1 can be used to introduce the major differences between L1 and L2, and the main grammatical characteristics of L2 that...
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  • Birht
    describing the relationships between first and second language acquisition: 1. L2 acquisition for all learners, including adults, is essentially the same as L1 acquisition. There is no such thing as a critical period that inhibits second language acquisition. The UG faculty is as available to adults as...
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  • Phonological and Writing Systems of English and Thai
    , i.e. L1 phonology, L2 phonology, and L1 spelling. They illustrated the case of German learners of English where their difficulty in spelling in English stemmed from the differences between the German and English phonological systems. According to their contrastive analysis of the two languages...
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  • Social Sparks
    Japanese and Vietnamese and there is a high level of correlation between children's reading ability in two languages. Transfer can also apply to other cognitive skills, for example to mathematical concepts (Baker 2001). Successful bilingual education programmes commonly teach some subjects in L1 and...
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  • Formulas
    Task (pre/post/delayed) Systematic and Language- Specific Individual Differences Language-based Measures of Knowledge The Measure of Knowledge of Arabic (L1) (pre/post/delayed) The Measure of Knowledge of English (L2) (pre/post/delayed) Reading Comprehension Measures Results (pre/post/delayed) for CC training group (experimental group) Results (pre/post/delayed) for RC training group (control group)...
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  • Mtb-Mle (Chapers 1-3)
    Balucuc Elementary School. Theoretical Framework Cummins (1984) formulated an ‘interdependence hypothesis,’ asserting that second language competence depends upon the level of development of L1. Cummins distinguished between two kinds of language mastery: ‘interpersonal communication’ refers to...
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