• James Rachels - egoism
    three consequences of cultural relativism (about morality) which he says provide strong reasons to reject the theory. Explain this argument of his. Do you think that the argument really does provide a good reason to reject cultural relativism? Why, or why not? Cultural relativists (what they...
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  • Evaluate the Effectiveness of Relative Approaches to Ethics
    Evaluate the effectiveness of relative approaches to ethics. Relativism is the opposite to absolutism. Absolutism is when something cannot be changed, it is constantly there, e.g. Gravity. Relativism means that there is no such thing as good in itself but if an action seems good or bad to you and...
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  • The Cultural Differences Argument for Moral Relativism
    Ruth Villagra The Cultural Differences Argument for Moral Relativism. Moral Relativism is generally used to describe the differences among various cultures that influence their morality and ethics. According to James Rachels, because of moral relativism there typically is no right and wrong and...
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  • Cultural Universals
    I have chosen to write about why cultural universals pose a problem for moral relativism in this paper. I will begin by defining cultural universals (CU). Then, I will cite examples of such theory and continue by applying them to situations in which these similarities can be seen. Next, I will discuss...
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  • Cultural Relativism
    Slavery and Normative Cultural Relativism “slavery is a thing in the mores which is not well covered by our definition, slavery does not arise in the folkways from the unconscious experimentation of individuals who have the same need which they desire to satisfy…it is rather due to ill feeling towards...
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  • Canada Has a Policy of Multiculturalism
    of multiculturalism designed to preserve and enhance the multicultural heritage of Canadians and equality of opportunity in the economic, social, cultural and political life of Canada. “Under the Act, all federal institutions shall: •ensure that Canadians of all origins have an equal opportunity to...
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  • Ethics
    Many people have claimed that although they by definition are separate, cultural relativism about morality and simple subjectivism can be objected to in the exact same way. In order to see the similar objections and attempt to defend the theories, they must first be looked at separately for clarification...
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  • Philosophy Ncr
    The Normative Cultural Relativism Theory (NCR) is based on the concept and idea that, “different cultures have different moral codes” (748). Simply, this theory implies that certain cultural customs cannot be judge on the basis of whether they’re “correct” or “incorrect”. This theory is founded upon...
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  • Ethnocentrisn
    feelings, as it is this point of view that gives people their sense of people-hood, group identity, and place in history (Druckman, 1994, p. 46) Sumner (1906) stated that ethnocentrism becomes negative when one's own group becomes the center of everything, and all other are scaled and rated with reference...
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  • Culure
    formulation dependency, homesickness (cultural), infinite regress (homesickness), boredom (job dependency), response ability (cultural skill set).[2] There is no true way to entirely prevent culture shock, as individuals in any society are personally affected by cultural contrasts differently.[3] In the...
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  • Philosophical Implications of Cultural Relativism
    Philosophical Implications of Cultural Relativism Philosophical position of Cultural Relativism is best understood in terms of its epistemological, ethical and logical implications. Philosophical means articulation, argumentation, analysis, and synthesis of the idea, principle or concept. [1] Implication...
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  • Relativism
    THE CHALLENGE OF CULTURAL RELATIVISM James Rachels[1] Morality differs in every society, and is a convenient term for socially approved habits. Ruth Benedict, Patterns of Culture (1934) 1. How Different Cultures...
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  • Utilitarianism
    5. Relativism Many different ideas have been given the name ‘relativism’, and the term has been used to pillory all sorts of views (sometimes for good reasons, sometimes for bad ones). It is mere posturing to say that you are for or against “relativism” unless you say what you mean by the term....
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  • Culture: Sociology
    both with nature. According to this thinking, some countries are more civilized than others, and some people are more cultured than others. Thus some cultural theorists have actually tried to eliminate popular or mass culture from the definition of culture. Theorists like Matthew Arnold (1822-1888) believed...
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  • Relative
    Ethics - ETHICAL THEORY 1 Relativism and absolutism | This is the actual essay written by my student in the June 2009 exam.  To access the mark scheme for this paper click here (and go to page 8).  I particularly like her use of link words to develop an argument, so I've highlighted them in blue.  She...
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  • 1865-1914 Wealth and Poverty Gap in the United States
    Looking Backward, c. Andrew Carnegie, The Gospel of Wealth, d. William Graham Sumner, What Social Classes owe to Each Other, e. Upton Sinclair, The Jungle During the period of time between 1865 and 1914, America went through a cultural revolution. The entire country changed, economically, politically...
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  • Ethnocentrism
    The term ethnocentrism was introduced by William Sumner in 1906, it comes from the Greek word, “ethno” meaning or referring to a nation, a people or cultural grouping, and the Latin word “centre” meaning center. It is the belief that one’s own society is superior to others based on judging other societies...
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  • Egoism and Altruism
    and (2) psychological issues concerning the underlying mental basis of our moral judgments and conduct. a. Metaphysical Issues: Objectivism and Relativism Metaphysics is the study of the kinds of things that exist in the universe. Some things in the universe are made of physical stuff, such as rocks;...
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  • Benedict vs Sumner
    who grew up during the time of slavery not to believe it was morally wrong because that was not the view of their society (Timmons, pg 49-54). William Sumner would probably argue that society's beliefs are based on their folkways. Folkways are sets of believes and practices cultures use to find their...
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  • Sociology 1301 Lecture notes
    swastika, (symbols that have changed meaning) Language—pg 42/43 A system of symbols that allows people to communicate with one another Key to CULTURAL TRANSMISSION Process by which one generation passes culture to the next Language is the key that unlocks centuries of accumulated wisdom Edward...
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