Experiment 1 Fluid Flow In A Smooth Pipe Abstract In this experiment, three variable flow meters are used to... alter the flowrate. Changes in pressure drop due to the change in flowrate are then observed from the three pressure gauges that can measure pressure at different range and recorded. The shift from laminar flow to turbulent flow is seen from the results recorded, but it is observed more clearly from the water-soluble dye experiment that was carried out by the demonstrator. Laminar flow...
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ME313L Fluid Mechanic Lab Manual (DRAFT) Pipe Friction Experiment Object: The friction loss in a... small-bore horizontal pipe is to be determined over a wide range of Reynolds number. Both laminar and turbulent flow regimes are to be studied. Equipment: Air valve Water manometer Mercury U-tube Isolating tap meter From water supply Needle valve Test tube Figure 1 Pipe friction apparatus A. Laminar Flow The laminar pipe friction apparatus is shown above. It consists of a water loop. The...
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FLUID FRICTION MEASUREMENTS YEDITEPE UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 1 YEDITEPE UNIVERSITY ENGINEERING... FACULTY MECHANICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY Fluid Friction Measurements 1. Objective: Ø To determine the head loss. Ø To determine the head loss associated with flow of water through standard fittings used in plumbing installations. Ø To determine the relationship between friction coefficient and Reynolds’ number for flow of water through a pipe having a roughened bore...
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Report: Pipe Friction MODULE LEADER: Dr. MEHDI NAZARINIA 1. Introduction The flow of fluid in... a pipe under pressure is used to reach many goals. A good knowledge of the fluid flow and pipe pressure at some point along the path of the pipe may facilitate to determine the size, capacity and material of the pipe for a system. In engineering and industry, the understanding of pipe flow is required for the control, transport, measure and storage of water or other fluids. ...
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Pipe Friction Summary The purpose of this lab is to find the friction factor and Reynolds number for laminar... and turbulent flow and also for values in the critical zone. Results were taken recorded and used to calculate the friction factor and Reynolds number. They were then compared with the Moody diagram. Aim This lab could be used in industry when dealing with a pipe line containing any type of liquid to calculate the Reynolds number and friction factor. It would also help in pipe...
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MEHB221 Fluids Mechanics Lab 2014 Experiment No. 5 HEAD LOSS DUE TO PIPE FRICTION Objective To verify that... Darcy-Weisbach equation can be used to predict the head loss due to friction with flow of water through a smooth bore pipe. Apparatus Fluid Friction Apparatus, FM100. Hydraulic Bench, FM110. Summary of theory For water flowing through a circular pipe, the head loss due to the friction can be calculated using Darcy-Weisbach equation. h = 4fLu2 2gd Or h = λLu2 2gd Where L = length of pipe between...
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objective : 1. To determine the head loss and friction factor for laminar & turbulent flow in a smooth pipe over... a range of Reynolds's number . 2. To obtain the following relationships : a. Head loss as a function of the velocity of flow . b. Friction factor as a function of Reynolds number . Theory : The friction resistance to the flow of fluid through a pipe results in a loss of pressure energy for a given fluid flowing a long a given pipe, experiments show that for laminar flow : Hl...
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Experiment 3: Fluid Flow Friction and Fitting Loss Objective To determine the pressure or head loss in different diameters... pipes, joints and valves Theory Pipe flows belong to a broader class of flows, called internal flows, where the fluid is completely bounded by solid surfaces. In contrast, in external flows, such as flow over a flat plate or an airplane wing, only part of the flow is bounded by a solid surface. The term pipe flow is generally used to describe flow through round pipes, ducts...
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Part 2 6 Part 3 6 Part 4 6 Part 5: 6 DISCUSSION 7 CONCLUSION 7 REFERENCES 7 INTRODUCTION The main objective of this assignment... is to simulate a 3-D air flow in a pipe using Ansys CFX. The pipe was simulated under specific conditions. These conditions are air temperature to be 25⁰C (degrees Celsius), one atmospheric reference pressure, no heat transfer and laminar flow. The results from the simulation of laminar flow in the pipe were compared with the theoretical ones. Also the mesh was...
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experiment of the friction loss along a smooth pipe shows that there are existence of laminar and transitional... flows as stated in Graph 2.0 and Graph 2.1. It is proven that the higher velocity along the smooth bore pipe, the higher is the head loss of water. As shown in Table 3.0, when the Reynolds’ number increases, the value of pipe coefficient friction, f decreases along the decreasing stead laminar line. On top of that, there are energy loss from the water to the surface of the pipe and therefore...
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to friction and pipe fitting in round smooth pipe Introduction To verify that Darcy – Weisbach... equation can be used to predict the head loss due to friction with of water through a smooth bore pipe. Apparatus HF 135 Piping Loss Test Set. Summary of theory For water flowing through a circular pipe, the head loss due to the friction can be calculated using Darcy – Weisbach equation. H = Where: L = length of pipe between tapping (m) = 1.25m for all pipe. d = internal diameter of pipe (m)...
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Friction Definition: Friction is the force resisting the relative lateral (tangential) motion of solid surfaces,... fluid layers, or material elements in contact. Force of friction:- Friction is a force that is created whenever two surfaces move or try to move across each other. • Friction always opposes the motion or attempted motion of one surface across another surface. • Friction is dependant on the texture of both surfaces. • Friction is also dependant on the amount of contact force...
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Friction Losses Abstract—The purpose of the experiment is to study the differences of... roughness, valves and geometries of pipe and how they influence friction losses. Introduction Friction loss is the loss of energy or “head” that occurs in pipe flow due to viscous effects generated by the surface of the pipe. This energy drop is dependent on the wall shear stress (τ) between the fluid and pipe surface. The shear stress of a flow is also dependent...
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16/11/2011 Fluid Mechanics - 4 Real Fluids 1 Contents Introduction Objectives Real Fluid Types of Flow... Laminar Flow Turbulent Flow 2 1 16/11/2011 Introduction In the earlier chapter, the basic equations of continuity and energy were introduced and applied to fluid flow cases where the assumption of frictionless flow (or ideal fluid flow) was made. It is now necessary to introduce concepts which enable the extension of the previous work to real fluids in which viscosity...
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Introduction: In any pipe system there is going to be a loss of energy due to the effect of viscosity from a fluid acting upon... the surface of the pipe, this is called Friction Loss. This type of lost depends on the shear stress due to the walls of the pipe and the fluid. It also depends in weather the fluid is laminar or turbulent. A major difference between these two flows is that due to a viscous layer created in turbulent flow the roughness of the pipe can be taken in account while in laminar...
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FRICTION Friction is necessary for walking due to the following reason, As per Newton’s third law of motion, (every action has... an equal and opposite reaction) we can walk if and only if the ground we are walking on push our feet back with a force. Now, as per the third law the ground would definitely push our feet back but if we are walking on a perfectly smooth ground which has no friction our force would simply cancel out the force reverted by the ground and we would fall. If there was no...
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Lecture No. 5 CLASSIFICATION OF FLUID FLOW AND THE CONTINUITY EQUATION 5.1 Classification of Fluid Flow Uniform flow If... the velocity of the fluid is the same in magnitude and direction at every point in the fluid the flow is said to be uniform. Non-uniform flow A non-uniform flow is one where the velocities at different points at a given instant are not the same. Every fluid that flows near a solid boundary will be non-uniform because the fluid at the boundary takes the velocity of the...
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Session=2013-14 Physics Project Topic: Friction Submitted To; Submitted By; Acknowledgement... The success and final outcome of this project required a lot of guidance and assistance from many people and I am fortunate to have got this all along the completion of my project work. I respect and thank for giving me an opportunity to do the project work on ‘Friction’. I am extremely grateful to him for providing such a nice support and guidance. At last...
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Introduction One of the most common thing in science is the friction. Let us see about the friction here. History The... classic rules of sliding friction were discovered by Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519), but remained unpublished in his notebooks. They were rediscovered by Guillaume Amontons (1699). Amontons presented the nature of friction in terms of surface irregularities and the force required to raise the weight pressing the surfaces together. This view was further elaborated by Belidor (representation...
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Chapter 8 Flow in Pipes 8-76E Solution The flow rate through a piping system between a river and a storage tank is given. The power input to... the pump is to be determined. Assumptions 1 The flow is steady and incompressible. 2 The entrance effects are negligible, and thus the flow is fully developed. 3 The flow is turbulent so that the tabulated value of the loss coefficients can be used (to be verified). 4 The elevation difference between the free surfaces of the tank and the river remains constant...
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Fluid Mechanics Laboratory 2 Report Robby Joseph 14103508 1.0 Introduction This experiment was undertaken for the study of flow in... pipes and the factors that affect it in both laminar and turbulent regimes. The transitional regime between laminar and turbulent flow will also be studied. The experiment was done using a pipe with a known diameter, and water was pumped in from a tank. Throughout the process, measurements of the quantity of water and time were taken as well as the hydraulic...
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Pipe Flow Experiment Purpose The purpose of the... experiment is providing an opportunity to students of experience to familiarize with some key aspects of fluid flow in pipe, notably friction losses and verify theory. In this experiment, required equipment are a water tank, piezometric tubes, pump, a stop watch, empty bucket and a digital weight scale. By operating the pump to keep the water is full in the water...
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1. Identify each of the following statements as either true or false. If false, explain why. (a) Viscosity is a measure of how easily a fluid... flows. (b) Although important, fluids are not essential to many living things. (c) A meniscus forms when water particles adhere to the sides of their container. (d) Buoyancy, like water pressure, acts in all directions. 2. Describe the relationship between mass, volume, and density of matter. 3. Use the particle theory to explain the differences between...
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have chosen to talk to you about friction. Friction is the force between two objects in contact with each other, making it a... contact force. It causes moving objects to slow down. Air resistance is a type of friction. Friction is an important force in our lives. We rely on friction in many ways. An athlete usually wears shoes which provide him/her with a greater friction between the shoe and the surface. We rely on friction as an important aspect of motion. Friction can be a very useful force because...
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Coefficient of Friction Lab Abstract The resisted force that acted along the tangent of two surfaces that were in contact was called... friction. Friction was opposed to motion, and it acted in the opposite direction, where the surface of the object slid against the surface of the other object. The two types of friction that exist were called static friction and kinetic friction. When two surfaces are at rest with each other, but a push is caused to convey one of the surfaces to slide over the other...
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TECHNICAL NOTE Pipe Flotation TN 5.05 February 2007 Introduction The light weight of HDPE pipe makes it desirable... because of the ease of handling and installation but this same benefit also makes HDPE pipe prone to flotation. All pipe products, such as concrete and corrugated metal, are prone to flotation under the right circumstances. In fact, all pipe materials and other buried structures are subject to flotation. When the uplift on the pipe or structure exceeds the downward force of the...
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following terms: a. Pressure Head pressure head [′presh·ər ‚hed] (fluid mechanics) Also known as head.... The height of a column of fluid necessary to develop a specific pressure. The pressure of water at a given point in a pipe arising from the pressure in it. b. Total Discharge Head Total discharge head refers to the actual physical difference in height between the liquid level in the pit and the highest point of the discharge pipe or water level in the outlet. c. NPSH Net Positive Suction Head...
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Abstract The quantity known as the friction coefficient (or ‘coefficient of friction’) has long been used in science and... engineering. It is easy to define, but not easy to understand on a fundamental level. Conceptually defined as the ratio of two forces acting, respectively, perpendicular and parallel to an interface between two bodies under relative motion or impending relative motion, this dimensionless quantity turns out to be convenient for depicting the relative ease with which materials slide...
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experiment is to study the friction loss along a pipe. In this experiment, water and mercury have been used to demonstrate the... law of resistance with different types of flow which are laminar and turbulent flow. The variation of head loss will be obtained and hence determined the Reynold numbers and friction factor. In the end of the experiment, the law of resistance which is the relationship between i and u will be determined and hence established the critical R and friction factor. 1.0 Introduction ...
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Fluid Balance Explain in detail the fluid compartments of the body, including distribution of fluid and... electrolytes within each compartment and the movement between compartments. In the average person water constitutes 60% to the total body weight.: 42L in a 70kg individual. 40% is intracellelular fluid, while remaining 20% is extracellular. The extracellular fluid can be divided into plasma (from intravascular compartment) and interstitial fluid intracellular fluid (28 L, about 35% of lean...
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Topics • • • • Introduction Reynolds' Experiment Dimensional Analysis of Conduit Flow Friction Factor for Fully Developed... Laminar Flow Friction Factor for Fully Developed Turbulent Flow Smooth Pipe Law Rough Pipe Law Different Workers Results Application Energy/ pressure loss problem Velocity/ flow rate problem Pipe Sizing Problem • Explicit Equation for Friction Factor CN2122 / CN2122E Main Topics • • • Equivalent Diameter for Non- Circular Conduit...
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Friction Page 1 Lab: Friction William Morris Leo Hayes High School Friction... Page 2 Purpose: To investigate the coefficient of friction for a given surface and the effects that factors such as weight, surface area and changes to the surface have on the coefficient of friction. Hypothesis: The smaller the amount of normal force (weight), the less friction created and the least surface area and the greaser the surface the less friction is created. With...
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Purpose/Problem/Question Which type of friction is the largest force – static, sliding, or rolling? Which is the smallest? II. Background... Information From our previous activities that we did in class, I know that static friction is a very large force. The force is larger than rolling, sliding, and fluid friction. I also learned that rolling friction is the smallest type of force. This information may connect to my final analysis. III. Hypothesis If static friction is the largest force, then either...
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Introduction: • The theme of my project "The friction force in the sport." • The theme of the project, I chose in March when we just started... to study the force of friction. • The topic seemed very interesting, because I already knew that the friction force is used in football. And I was curious, what other sports use the force of friction. • My project focuses on the Area Of Interaction "Health and Social Education." • Some of us go to sports clubs, or do it yourself, such as running in the...
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of Bahrain College of Engineering Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture Fluid Mechanics CENG231 Osborne Reynolds... Demonstration Sayed abbas Mohamed 20104762 03 1. Objective: To reproduce the classical experiments conducted by Professor Osborne Reynolds concerning fluid flow condition. 2. Theory: Reynolds number, Re is the internationally recognized criterion denoting fluid flow condition. “ Re = 4Q/ πvd ” Osborn Reynolds determined that values of Re could...
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Experiment 4: Friction Laboratory Report Anna Rucelli Ignacio Michael Giorgio Lapus Ted William Lardizabal Janell Leica Lee... Department of Occupational Therapy College of Reabilitation Sciences, University of Santo Tomas España, Manila Philippines Abstract The experiment verifies the laws of friction with the use of a spring scale, a block of wood, its different surfaces and the different surfaces of other objects. Another part of the experiment uses the palms of the hands to produce...
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ENT 310 Fluid Mechanics Midterm #1 – Open Book and Notes Name _______________________ 1. (5 pts) The maximum pressure that can be... developed for a certain fluid power cylinder is 50.0 MPa. Compute the force it can exert if its piston diameter is 100 mm. 2. (5 pts) Calculate the weight (in Newtons) of 100 liters of fuel oil if it has a mass of 900 Kg. 3. (5 pts) The fuel tank of a truck holds 0.20 cubic meters. If it is full of gasoline having a specific gravity of 0.68, calculate the weight...
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(HYDRODYNAMICS) SPRING 2005 Part 1. Fluid-Flow Principles 1. Introduction 1.1 Definitions 1.2 Notation and fluid... properties 1.3 Hydrostatics 1.4 Fluid dynamics 1.5 Control volumes 1.6 Visualising fluid flow 1.7 Real and ideal fluids 1.8 Laminar and turbulent flow 2. Continuity (mass conservation) 2.1 Flow rate 2.2 The steady continuity equation 2.3 Unsteady continuity equation 3. The Equation of Motion 3.1 Forms of the equation of motion 3.2 Fluid acceleration 3.3 Bernoulli’s equation ...
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Group members: Yuan Li Hong, Desmond Wong Practical Lecturer: Mr Zoheir Practical Group: 6 Part 1 Title: To determine the coefficient of... static friction between two surfaces. Objectives: 1. To determine the relationship between the mass of load and the length of spring. 2. To determine the coefficient of static friction between two surface. Apparatus and materials: 1. Retort stand 2. Spring 3. Slotted masses 200g with hanger 4. Meter rule Setup: [pic] ...
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Static Friction INTRODUCTION When an object is placed on a surface it will remain static unless the resolved component of the force due to... gravity acting parallel to the surface exceeds the friction force associated with the static coefficient of friction between surfaces by placing various objects on a surface and tilting the surface until the object begins to slip. By measuring the angle at which the object begins to slip, it is then possible to calculate the coefficient of friction between...
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Chapter 3: FLUID FLOW CHAPTER THREE FLUID FLOW 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Fluid Flow Unit Pump Test Unit... Hydraulics bench and accessories Flow Curve Determination for Non-Newtonian Fluids Fixed and Fluidized Bed Facts which at first seem improbable will, even in scant explanation, drop the cloak which has hidden them and stand forth in naked and simple beauty. GALILEO GALILEI 1 3.1. FLUID FLOW UNIT Keywords: Pressure loss, straight pipe, pipe bend, orifice meter, venturi meter...
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Laminar and Turbulent Fluid Flows: If you’ve ever traveled on an airplane, you might recall the pilot instructing you to fasten your seat... belt because of the turbulence associated with severe weather patterns or airflow over mountain ranges. You may also have had other firsthand experiences with laminar and turbulent fluid flows. Try opening the valve on a garden hose (without a nozzle) by just a small amount, and watch how water streams out of it in an orderly fashion. The shape of the water...
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Fluid Report 2 In the derivation of Bernoulli’s equation, the assumption of the inviscid and incompressible flow is used. However in the... real case, the viscosity cannot be neglect and the density of the flow is not always constant. Thus Bernoulli’s equation is not always correct. For the lab, it is reasonable to assume the flow is inviscid and incompressible. Firstly, the pitot was placed at the center of the flow. The skin friction (effect of viscosity) is inversely proportional to distance...
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Poor or middle income group people 5. Businessmen 6. Creating Brands 7. Adds and promotions 8. Low price strategy 9. Varieties available... for different age groups 10. Various schemes for pre-paid and post paid customers Conclusion and Recommendation:...
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CONCLUSION Angiosperms (flowering plant) include in phylum Anthophyta.Angiosperms are plant that have flowers and fruit. Their part of... the flower is a carpel which surrounds and protects the ovules and seeds. The fruit surrounds the embryo and aids seed dispersal. The great majority of angiosperms are classified either as monocots or eudicots.Monocot embryos have a single seed leaf (cotyledon), and pollen grains with a single groove while eudicots (true dicots) have two cotyledons, and pollen...
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Fluid characteristics Every fluid has a unique set of characteristics, including: • Density. • Dynamic viscosity. • Kinematic... viscosity. Density This has already been discussed in Block 2, Steam Engineering Principles and Heat Transfer, however, because of its importance, relevant points are repeated here. Density (ρ) defines the mass (m) per unit volume (V) of a substance (see Equation 2.1.2). Equation 2.1.2 Steam tables will usually provide the specific volume (νg) of steam at various...
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Drilling Fluids Physical Properties of Mud PETE 101 Introduction to Petroleum Engineering Submitted to: Dr. Shirish Patil... Petroleum Engineering Department University of Alaska Fairbanks By: Me Abstract Drilling fluid (mud) is a mixture of water or oil, or emulsion base , clay, weighing material and some chemicals. The combination of mud may vary according to the changes in formation. Drilling fluid plays essential role in drilling process. For this experiment we...
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Fluid Mechanics CHE2161/MEC2404 Frictional Flow in Pipes Experiment : Friday 8.30-11.30am Conducted In :... Fluid Mechanics Lab Abstract The main aim of this experiment was to show how the friction factor varies with Reynolds number by manipulating the flow rate of the fluid in a pipe. The main principle used in the experiment was the Bernoulli’s equation, taking major head losses into account. These major head losses were normally due to wall friction in the pipe and viscous...
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UNIVERSITI TENAGA NASIONAL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING MEHB221 - FLUIDS MECHANICS LAB EXP.... TITLE : EXPERIMENT 7-PUMP PERFORMANCE – SINGLE PUMP AUTHOR : MOHD SYAHEEN NASRIN BIN SALEHUDDIN SID : ME090195 SECTION : 06 GROUP : A GROUP MEMBERS: 1………………………………………………. 2………………………………………………. 3………………………………………………. 4………………………………………………. 5………………………………………………. INSTRUCTOR : ………………………………………………. Performed Date Due...
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Conclusion In part A of this experiment, we transformed the bacteria into an antibiotic resistant form by inserting a plasmid into it. We... used heat shock in order to make the bacteria capable to uptake a plasmid in the presence of calcium ions that help disrupt the cell membrane (heat shock is the combination of altering hot and cold). When they are capable of accepting plasmids, the bacteria are incubated with plasmids that carry the resistance to a particular antibiotic, in this case ampicilin...
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Introduction to Fluid Mechanics School of Civil Engineering, University of Leeds. CIVE1400 FLUID MECHANICS Dr Andrew Sleigh May... 2001 Table of Contents 0. 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 CONTENTS OF THE MODULE Objectives: Consists of: Specific Elements: Books: Other Teaching Resources. Civil Engineering Fluid Mechanics System of units The SI System of units Example: Units 3 3 3 4 4 5 6 7 7 9 1. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 FLUIDS MECHANICS AND FLUID PROPERTIES Objectives of this section Fluids Causes...
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FLUID MECHANICS Page 1 of 2 H7 Friction Loss in a Pipe For direct measurement of friction... loss in a small-bore horizontal pipe, during both laminar and turbulent flow • Directly measures friction loss in a small-bore test pipe • Investigates laminar and turbulent flow and the transition point • Shows the critical Reynolds Number and verifies Poiseuille’s Equation for laminar flow • Includes precision valve for precise flow control and a Header Tank for good laminar flow • Works...
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MP4005 1 NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY SEMESTER 2 EXAMINATION 2012-2013 MP4005 – FLUID DYNAMICS April/May 2013 Time Allowed: 2 ½ hours... INSTRUCTIONS 1. This paper contains FOUR (4) questions and comprises FOUR (4) pages. 2. Answer ALL FOUR questions. 3. All questions carry equal marks. 4. This is a CLOSED-BOOK examination. 5. The Compressible Gas Tables comprising of TWELVE (12) pages are enclosed. 1 (a) Derive the area-velocity relationship in compressible flow. Describe briefly the...
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Experiment 5: Friction Laboratory Report Charles Sanchez, Geminesse Sianghio, Ferguie Solis Department of Chemistry College of... Science, University of Santo Tomas España Street, Manila Philippines Abstract In this experiment, a block of wood is used to observe friction on different surfaces such that an extra weight is also added to the block of wood to measure the same units under the different surfaces. With also the use of lubircant a member of the group was asked to observe the...
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measure the pressure variation and different contributing components of the drag force on a circular cylinder. The devices used in this experiment were a... fan, closed-channel venturi-shape pipe, a Pitot tube, circular cylinder with holes of different angles, U-tube manometers and a barometer. INTRODUCTION When a fluid is passing through an object, it produces a total force on the object. This force is a combined force of lift and drag forces (Anderson 2007). External flows past objects have been studied...
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2011 Pre-course Learning Objectives: Fluids and Electrolytes: 1. Identify and describe the composition of the fluid... compartments within the body Either Intracellular fluid (ICF- 2/3 of the body’s water) or extracellular fluid (ECF -one third of the body’s water). The two main extracellular fluid compartments are the interstitial fluid and the intravascular fluid, which is the blood plasma. Other ECF compartments include the lymph and the transcellular fluids such as the synovial , intestinal,...
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PRAXIS Semester 1 Fluid Mechanics Lab Report Contents Objective 3 Theory 3 Experimental Method 4 Equipment needed for this... experiment 4 Procedure 4 Results 5 Discussion of Results 6 Sources of errors 8 Conclusions 8 References 8 Objective The objective of performing this experiment is to measure the hydrostatic force on a partially submerged vertical surface and to compare the force found in the experiment to the theoretical equivalents. Theory A submerged body will...
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Friction Driving a car could be a scary thing if you don't know how to handle different situations. You will have a very high risk of... getting into an accident. Before getting into a car your should know how to handle it well, be aware of your surroundings and the conditions of your environment. Friction is the resistance to motion between two objects in contact with each other. When the resistance related to the tires on the car against the road, it is called traction. The traction points...
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rubber bottom across each surface (wood, cement and sandpaper) 5 times. 3)Time each slide. 4)Read the force required to pull the 5 kg box. 5)Find the... velocity of each trial. 6)Find the acceleration of each trial. 7)Calculate the coefficent of friction for each surface using the average force. Results: Wood Surface Trial # Time Velocity Acceleration Force (kg) Force (Newtons) 1 5 s 0.2 m/s 0.04 m/s* 1.85 0.074 2 5 s 0.2 m/s 0.04 m/s* 1.70 0.068 3 4.5 s 0.2222 m/s 0.0494...
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Flue Pipe Experiment Abstract The wind instrument I will be researching in this experiment will be the pipe organ, commonly... used in cathedrals and churches. Pipe organs produce sound by pushing pressurized air through a set of flue pipes. Flue pipes usually have a circular cross section and are mostly made of wood or metal. One pipe can only produce one pitch, so to produce a range of pitches an organ will have multiple sets of pipes called stops. Organs can have as little as 12 pipes to as...
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