the pump is switched on.
6. V1 is opened gradually and the piping is allowed to fill with water until all air has been expelled from the system.
B. Experiment 1: FluidFriction in SmoothBorePipes
1. The appropriate valves are opened and closed to obtain flow of water through the required...
The objective :
1. To determine the head loss and friction factor for laminar & turbulent flow in a smoothpipe over a range of Reynolds's number .
2. To obtain the following relationships :
a. Head loss as a function of the velocity of flow .
b. Friction...

Evident from the devices’ name, the rough borepipe has a K value approximately 3 times of that of the smoothborepipe. The rougher interior of the rough borepipe would provide more frictional resistance to fluid flow hence contributing to greater head loss.
Bends and elbows
Device...
tube (17) A Venturi made of clear acrylic (18)
2
· · · ·
An orifice meter made of clear acrylic (19) A ball valve (12) A globe valve (20) A gate valve (21)
3. Theory: 3.1 FluidFriction in a SmoothBorePipe Two types of flow may exist in a pipe: 1) Laminar flow at low velocities where h...
.
15
Pressure loss during a laminar flow in a pipe
Up to this point we only considered ideal fluid where there is no losses due to friction or any other factors. In reality, because fluids are viscous, energy is lost by flowing fluids due to friction which must be taken into account. The...
and pressure distribution along venture tube.
HM150.07 Bernoulli’s Theorem Demonstration
Fluid Mechanics
Experiment 2: Friction along a pipe
To demonstrate the change in the law if resistance and to establish the critical value of R (Reynolds number).
Lab unit: Test pipe, Air valve, Bleed...
). Establishing Smooth Velocity Profile We have learnt from equation P1V1 = P2V2, that as the pressure decreases along the line from the pickup point to the discharge, the air volume expands and therefore the volume (or velocity) will be continually increasing. This is true for a single borepipe line...
, smooth laminar flow. When the fluid’s Reynolds number is too high, the friction factor gives in and turbulent flow results. Also, the roughness of the pipe or the surface the fluid flows on has a great influence, the greater the roughness of the pipe or system, the greater the chances of turbulent flow...
. Causes of friction loss can include the movement of fluid molecules against one another, or against the inside surface of the pipe and bends, kinks or sharp turns in hose or piping.
This experiment allows us to investigate different scenarios of piping, particularly in roughness, geometry and...
permanently lost through confusion to heat. In an open channel flow, this demonstrated as the fast flow rapidly slowing and piling up on top of itself similar to how shockwave occurred. The smooth transition is possible in open channel flow from subcritical to supercritical flow, but it’s not...
through an orifice; tankemptying)
4. The Momentum Principle
4.1 Steadyflow momentum principle
4.2 Applications (pipe contractions; pipe bends; jets)
5. Energy
5.1 Derivation of Bernoulli’s equation from an energy principle
5.2 Fluid head
5.3 Departures from ideal flow (discharge...
the natural channel to correct for the geometric discrepancy. Thus the friction effect of the discrepancy can be corrected, but its effect on, say, dispersion of heat and mass is less well known.
EXAMPLE 5.7
The pressure drop due to friction for flow in a long smoothpipe is a function of average...
product pipeline. The accuracy of the bore is normally determined using laser guidance control systems similar to that for pipe jacking but with technical developments to permit remote operation from a control cabin at the surface spoil from the excavated face is removed by an auger...
Experiment 1
Fluid Flow In A SmoothPipe
Abstract
In this experiment, three variable flow meters are used to alter the flowrate. Changes in pressure drop due to the change in flowrate are then observed from the three pressure gauges that can measure pressure at different range and recorded. The...
pipe = 2(m);
u – Speed of the fluid (m/s);
Friction factor is obtained due to main aims of the experiment and then plotted on the logarithmic scale graph along with the experimental Reynolds number.
e) Having experimental values for both friction factor (f) and Reynolds Number(Re) graph...
D V g = = = = = = Head loss due to frictionfriction factor Pipe length Pipe inner diameter Average fluid velocity gravitational acceleration
2
For laminar flow, f = 64 / Re, and is independent of pipebore surface roughness. For turbulent flow, f can be determined from the Moody Diagram, once...
pressure for flow in straight pipes, through pipe bends, fittings, orifice and venturi meters.
3.1.2. Theory
When a fluid flows along a pipe, friction between the fluid and the pipe wall causes a loss of energy. This energy loss shows itself as a progressive fall in pressure along the pipe and...
of Contents
ABSTRACT 1
AGENDA 2
UNIT I  INTRODUCTION 3
CHAPTER 1 METALLIC BENCH VISE 3
CHAPTER 2  APPLICATIONS 4
CHAPTER 3  OTHER TYPES OF VISES AND THEIR USES 5
Machinist’s Bench Vise 5
Bench and Pipe Vise 5
Clamp Base Bench Vise 6
Hand Vise 6
UNIT II  DESIGN...
gradient of pipes?
Manning's Equation is commonly used for rough turbulent flow while ColebrookWhite Equation is adopted for transition between rough and smooth turbulent flow. For Manning's Equation, it is simple to use and has proven to have acceptable degree of accuracy and is the most commonly...