STATISTICAL TEST • The first step in determining what statistical test to use is to determine the type of research question to be answered by the statistical analysis. In elementary courses, the two basic types of questions are: 1. the degree of relationship or dependence among variables (H0 = there is no relationship or dependence, and the statistical test answers the question as to whether any relationship or dependence found is sufficiently different from zero that it can be considered...
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Understanding the Pearson Correlation Coefficient (r) The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (r) assesses the degree that quantitative variables are linearly related in a sample. Each individual or case must have scores on two quantitative variables (i.e., continuous variables measured on the interval or ratio scales). The significance test for r evaluates whether there is a linear relationship between the two variables in the population. The appropriate correlation coefficient depends on...
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value > α (0.01). (2). The values of “r” show a positive correlation among the variables that means both variables increases together. That’s why values of r have strongest possible relationship. According to Burns (2011), “The r values of +1.00 and -1.00 both indicate the strongest possible relationships among variables. Positive (+) 1.00 is the strongest or perfect positive relationship and indicates that variables change together, either increasing or decreasing simultaneously...
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Research used in Psychology? * Research in Psychology as in all fields of science has two focuses of interest. * Basic Research = is concern with the quest for knowledge regardless of whether it has immediate practical value. * Applied Research = seeks to improve the human condition by discovering something that can be put to practical used. * When the scientist work, strive to find relationships between observable variables. For example, Robert Boyle found a direct relationship between...
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between adult attachment classification and symptoms of depression. By assessing adult attachment classifications in this study it is proposed it will identify individuals at risk to depressive symptoms and help in gaining a better understanding of the types of treatment interventions that may be most effective given an individual’s attachment style. One hundred undergraduate students will complete two online questionnaires each...
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developing theories, experimentation and summarizing information. The first two steps of the scientific method involve observation and description of a phenomenon or group of phenomena and then formulating a question. The description must be reliable, replicable and valid (Wikipedia.org). Scientists will try and find a cause and effect relationship and that will lead to the development of theories. Scientists observe the phenomenon and will try to explain it with a hypothesis. A hypothesis is "an attempt...
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, 2001). Satisfying, longstanding relationships have become incredibly rare. Several studies have traced relationship conflict back to effects caused by parental divorce (Amato & Booth, 2001). These studies have also shown that parental divorce increases the risk of divorce in their offspring. Although ample work has been completed on this topic, a study has yet to examine the effects that parental marital status has on college-age females in relationships. Studies have suggested that females...
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Central Coherence: Is it a single construct, with a relationship to mentalising? The past 20 years has seen much interest in the development of cognitive profiles and mentalising ability, particularly in how they may account for some characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Two of the most influential theories to date are: (i) Weak Central Coherence theory (WCC), which posits that those with WCC focus on detailed (local) features and fail to apply a global context in understanding their...
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The relationship between perfectionism and depression Abstract In this study, an investigation into the relationship between perfectionism and depression was carried out using n=452 participants from the Liverpool area (United Kingdom). The level of depression the dependant variable was measured using the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (Zigmond, AS; Snaith, RP., 1983), whilst the independent variable perfectionism levels were measured using the Almost Perfect Scale – Revised (Slaney, Rice,...
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Do Standard Intelligence Tests Actually Measure Intelligence? The concept of intelligence has been widely debated throughout time following the inception of the IQ test. Many theories have been proposed although no single definition of intelligence has been universally accepted with disagreement between researchers from biological and psychometric fields. The psychometric approach, which is the dominant field with respect to public attention and research, attempts to measure intelligence by means...
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What is Correlational Research? The correlation research method is appropriate when researchers want to study and “assess relationships among naturally occurring variables.” Assessment means making predictions about the nature of the relationships being studied. It also means describing the relations and assigning them a “correlation coefficient” that describes the direction and magnitude of the movement of variables to one another. There are many types of correlational research. The commonality...
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EXERCISE 36 6. Can ANOVA be used to test proposed relationships or predicted correlations between variables in a single group? Provide rationale for your answer. ANOVA cannot be used to test proposed relationships or predicted correlations between variables in a single group because it is designed to test for correlations and interactions amongst groups, i.e. in the test group of patients with OA you are testing the correlations between those who do not use GI and PMR and those that do. Although...
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The T-TEST 1.0 INTRODUCTION The t-test was developed by W. S. Gossett, a statistician employed at the Guinness brewery. However, because the brewery did not allow employees to publish their research, Gossett's work on the t-test appears under the name "Student". The t-test is sometimes referred to as "Student's t-test." Gossett was a chemist and was responsible for developing procedures for ensuring the similarity of batches of Guinness. The t-test was developed as a way of measuring how closely...
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researchers found a significant difference between the two groups (control and treatment) for change in mobility of the women with osteoarthritis (OA) over 12 weeks with the results of F(1, 22) = 9.619, p = 0.005. Discuss each aspect of these results. Since the F value is significant, based on the p-value of 0.005 which is less than 0.05, making it sufficient to reject the null hypothesis. This suggests that there is a difference in the control and treatment groups. 2. State the null hypothesis for the...
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The Relationship between Self-Esteem and Procrastination Psyc 1013 – Introduction to Research Methods in Psychology ABSTRACT The study investigated the relationship between self-esteem and procrastination. A questionnaire was administered to a total of thirty (30) students from all faculties of the University of The West Indies Cave Hill Campus, who agreed to participate in the study. The responses obtained were recorded and the analyses were acquired through the entry of data into SPSS...
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SUMMARY OF THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL | Relationship Between Economic Growth & Inflation In China | | | Table of Contents 1. Research Problem 1 1.1 Problem Statement 1 1.2 Significance of the problem 1 1.3 Research Sub-questions 1 2 Research Objectives 2 3. Research plan 2 3.1 Hypothesis 2 3.2 Variables 2 3.3 Data Collection 3 3.4 Methods of Analysis 3 5. Bibliography i 1. Research Problem 1.1 Problem Statement China’s economy has been growing rapidly during the past...
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The researchers found a significant difference between the two groups (control and treatment) for change in mobility of the women with osteoarthritis (OA) over 12 weeks with the results of F (1, 22) = 9.619, p = 0.005. Discuss each aspect of these results. Answer: The F value suggests there is a significant difference between the results of the control and treatment groups. The P-value of 0.005 is < the alpha of 0.05.This suggest that the groups are significantly different and the null hypothesis...
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THE CORRELATION BETWEEN THE STUDENTS’ LEARNING HOURS AND THEIR ENGLISH SCORES By: Yelly A. Barlian Abstract The research investigated the relationship between the student’s learning hours and their English scores and how strong the relationship was. The participants consisted of 22 students of Product Design Dept. from a private Art and Design tertiary school in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. The instruments used in this study were the variables of English mid-term test score and a questionnaire...
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Descriptive Research * Recording events * DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH: describes behaviour of organisms in natural settings * CASE STUDY: in-depth analysis of an individual, group, or event. * detail; observation, interview, tests, etc. * closely study rare phenomena; challenge validity of other theories; new hypotheses * does not accurately determine cause-effect; inaccurate generalization; researcher bias * RESEARCHER BIAS: lack of objectivity...
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project I will try to explain the relationship between the oil prices, gold prices and stock market in the United State using yearly time series data. Since the gold and oil prices are raising their influence on stock market is also increasing and we will see how fluctuations in oil prices and gold prices impact the stock market in the United States. So here oil prices and gold prices will be our explanatory variable and stock market index will be our explained variable. In this study we will use multiple...
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Ancova Statistics ANCOVA & Factorial ANOVA Part A. SPSS Activity Exploratory Data Analysis Data was collected for students involved in a pilot research carried out to determine if 5th grade girls do better in small class sizes while boys excel in larger classes. Bar graphs were formulated to give a clear visual representation of the data and show the relationship between the two genders in the three situations of classroom sizes. (Walpole, 1987) Bar Graph...
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Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Exercise 36 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) I 1. A major significance is identifiable between the control group and the treatment group with the F value at 5% level of significance. The p value of 0.005 is less than 0.05 indicating that the control group and the treatment group are indeed different. Based on this fact, the null hypothesis is to be rejected. 2. Null hypothesis: The mean mobility scores for the control group and the treatment group are equal. The null hypothesis...
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Victimization: Processes That Mediate the Relation Between Peer Group Rejection and Children’s Classroom Engagement and Achievement? Authors: Eric S. Buhs Gary W. Ladd and Sarah L. Herald The thought that peer exclusion is correlated with children’s classroom achievements and adjustment has been hypothesized since the 1930’s. Much research and empirical evidence for such hypotheses have since been collected, and seem to agree with the premise of the correlation. Peer acceptance is the main measurement...
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Long Distance Relationships: How Does Media Communication Impact on Relational Maintenance? A long distance relationship is very challenging for college students to maintain without face to face interactions. The influences that media usage has on maintaining long distance relationships is a big part of communication. This research is going to examine the types of communication methods between long distance couples and then to determine which type is most suitable for a healthy and stable relationship...
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order to test the adverse reactions of the drug called Xynamine (a new drug designed to lower pulse rates) must be tested for their effectiveness and the drug is tested only for males. Here, the treatment groups are divided into 3 categories they were placebo group (no treatment), 10-mg treatment group and 20-mg treatment group. Thus, the analysis test result is carried out using the technique of one-way analysis of variance ANOVA (Analysis of Variance - single factor). Assumptions of ANOVA The...
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PPP and UIP Between United States and Germany Economics 423 Essay Eddie Ng ID# 977460 University of Calgary Running Head: PPP & UIP Between US & Germany PPP and UIP Between United States and Germany Exchange of goods between various countries has dominated the international trade market today. To compensate the differences in the rate of inflation between two countries, appropriate exchange rate has to be implemented. Exchange rate is the price of one...
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the variable accurately reflect the phenomenon you are trying to measure. Reliability- does the indicator consistently assign the same number. Cross-sectional data- no time/multiple entries. Panel data set- multiple entries/over time. Time series-one entry/time. Population: the total set of items or people that a researcher is interested in studying. Sample: a subset of the population- random or nonrandom. Goal is to be representative of population.Criteria for evaluating causal relationships. Time...
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Research Question Relationship to Research Design Lyn Shela Heck The research question or hypotheses narrows the purpose statement. It predicts what will be learned and the questions studied. A research question must indicate a target population. It must identify the dependent variable and the independent variable(s) as well as answer what is the desired knowledge or conclusion. Accurate results come from a good research question. Variables must be clearly defined. Based on the data extrapolated...
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be graded 1. The researchers found a significant difference between the two groups (control and treatment) for change in mobility of the women with osteoarthritis (OA) over 12 weeks with the results of F(1, 22) = 9.619,p = 0.005. Discuss each aspect of these results. Answer F-value shows significance between the two groups. The null hypothesis should be rejected because the P-Value is 0.005 which would mean that the groups are different. 2. State the null hypothesis for the Baird and...
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Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) I 1. The researchers found a significant difference between the two groups (control and treatment) for change in mobility of the women with osteoarthritis (OA) over 12 weeks with the results of F(1, 22) 9.619, p 0.005. Discuss each aspect of these results. F is the statistic for ANOVA. F (1,22) one represents the number of groups in the study and 22 equals the subjects used the error df, and 9.619 is significant as it is P=0.005, it can be said that the intervention...
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MATH533: Applied Managerial Statistics PROJECT PART C: Regression and Correlation Analysis Using MINITAB perform the regression and correlation analysis for the data on SALES (Y) and CALLS (X), by answering the following questions: 1. Generate a scatterplot for SALES vs. CALLS, including the graph of the "best fit" line. Interpret. After interpreting the scatter plot, it is evident that the slope of the ‘best fit’ line is positive, which indicates that sales amount varies directly...
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The purpose of this paper is to provide a response to a scenario by running a correlation and regression analysis for a statistics class assignment. The assignment provides a scenario with two part, pursuing ways to develop and maintain online and blended programs (Szapkiw, 2014, p. 2). This assignment required the use of SPSS to “choose the appropriate tests . . . run the tests and analyze the data” (Szapkiw, 2014, p. 14). Structure This assignment has two aspects and seven sections for the...
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One sample t-test A one sample t-test allows us to test whether a sample mean (of a normally distributed interval variable) significantly differs from a hypothesized value. For example, using the hsb2 data file, say we wish to test whether the average writing score (write) differs significantly from 50. We can do this as shown below. ttest write=50 One-sample t test ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Variable | Obs Mean Std. Err. Std...
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variance Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) is a generalized form of univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA). It is used when there are two or more dependent variables. It helps to answer : 1. do changes in the independent variable(s) have significant effects on the dependent variables; 2. what are the interactions among the dependent variables and 3. among the independent variables.[1] Where sums of squares appear in univariate analysis of variance, in multivariate analysis of variance...
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------------------------------------------------- Simple regression and correlation Submitted by Sohaib Roomi Submitted to:Miss Tahreem Roll No M12BBA014 Simple Regression And Correlation Introduction The term regression was introduced by the English biometrician, Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911) to describe a phenomenon in which he observed in analyzing the heights of children and their parents. He solved a tendency toward the average height of all men. Today, the word “Regression” is used in quiet different sense. Its investigation...
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Evrhett Davis, Andrew Staub Saint Joseph’s University Organismal Lab Tuesday Dr. Jonathon Fingerut December 1, 2013 Thigmotaxic Variation Between Cephalic and Caudal Regions in Planaria The development of a centralized nervous system in primitive animals provided a significant advantage resulting in the continuance of many species. Nervous tissue allowed organisms to expand into new methods of predation, protection and reproduction; encouraging specialization and eventually increased...
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Correlation Chapter 10 Covariance and Correlation What does it mean to say that two variables are associated with one another? How can we mathematically formalize the concept of association? Differences between Data Handling in Correlation & Experiment 1. Summarize entire relationship • We don’t compute a mean Y (e.g., aggressive behavior) score at each X (e.g., violent tv watching). We summarize the entire relationship formed by all pairs of X-Y scores. This is the major advantage...
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EFFECTS OF ROMANTIC RELATIONSHIP ON SELF ESTEEM, IDENTITY AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE MUHAMMAD -. LUQMAN DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY BAHAUDDIN ZAKRIYA UNIVERSITY MULTAN Sponsored by: HUMA WASEEM (waseem.huma@yahoo.com) ABSTRACT The present study aims at studying romantic relationship and its effects on academic performance, identity and self esteem. Parent and peer influences on academic achievement are well documented, but little research has examined links to romantic involvement during the adolescent...
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Correlation Correlation Co-efficient Definition: A measure of the strength of linear association between two variables. Correlation will always between -1.0 and +1.0. If the correlation is positive, we have a positive relationship. If it is negative, the relationship is negative. Correlation Correlation can be easily understood as co relation. To define. correlation is the average relationship between two or more variables. When the change in one variable makes or causes a change in...
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CORRELATION ANALYSIS (V. Imp) Meaning: -- If two quantities vary in such a way that movement in one are accompanied by movement in other, these quantities are correlated. For example, there exits some relationship between age of husband and age of wife, price of commodity and amount demanded etc. The degree of relationship between variables under consideration is measured through correlation analysis. The measure of correlation called correlation coefficient. Thus, Correlation analysis refers...
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Using Single- Subject Designs A Little History A major goal of psychology is to understand human and animal behaviour. Understanding a particular behaviour means knowing what variables influence the behaviour and what functional relationships exist between these variables and behaviours. Psychology’s beginnings as an experimental discipline began in the latter half of the 19th century. Early researchers recognized the problems created by apparently random variations in the behaviour of their...
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provide information about the central tendency, dispersion, skew, and kurtosis of data, inferential statistics allow making broader statements about the relationships between data. Inferential statistics are frequently used to answer cause-and-effect questions and make predictions. They are also used to investigate differences between and among groups. However, one must understand that inferential statistics by themselves do not prove causality. Such proof is always a function of a given theory, and...
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level, how models, techniques and methods constructed or borrowed from Economic Theory or other Sciences respectively are used to help accomplish these tasks. To do so, we consider a standard theoretical model of consumer choices in an economy in which the only activity is the exchange of goods. Due to the above-mentioned we can say that the most powerful technique used to predict the consequences of policies or future trends is modeling. A model is an abstraction intended to convey the essence...
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Independent Variables Chapter 8 is devoted to dummy (independent) variables. This How To answers common questions on working with and interpreting dummy variables. Questions: 1) How to include dummy variables in a regression? 2) How to interpret a coefficient on a dummy variable? 3) How to test hypotheses with dummy variables and interaction terms? 4) How to create a double-log functional form with dummy variables? 5) How to interpret a coefficient on a dummy variable with a log...
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Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Indian Institute of Public Health Delhi MSc CR 2013-15 Outline of the session • Need for Analysis of Variance • Concept behind one way ANOVA • Example • Non-parametric alternative When dependent variable is continuous Type of Dependent variable Type of Independent variable Number of Groups Continuous Categorical More than two Non-parametric (Wilcoxon sign rank) Paired t – test Not normal Non-parametric (Wilcoxon sign ...
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Assessing T-tests To clearly identify what a t-test accomplishes in descriptive statistics it is imperative to understand what a t-test represents. A “t-test is a parametric statistical test for comparing the means of two independent samples” (Plichta & Kelvin, 2013, p. 464). Gosset developed the t-test for use in quality control at the Guinness Brewery and published his works under the pen name “Student” (Plichta & Kelvin, 2013). T-tests use assumptions related to the underlying...
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stack of printouts. She says, “You’re the marketing research whiz—tell me how many of this new red widget we are going to sell next year. Oh, yeah, we don’t know what price we can get for it either.” Situation 2: Another harried executive (they all seem to be that way) calls you into his office and shows you three proposed advertising campaigns for next year. He asks, “Which one should I use? They all look pretty good to me.” Situation 3: During the annual budget meeting, the sales manager wants...
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during surgery. We wishes to study the relationship between the dose of a new drug, the average systolic blood pressure during the operation and time ( recovery time ) for the blood pressure to come back to normal after administration of the drug has ceased. Introduction: We are studying 53 cases to see the variation of the blood pressure proportion during the surgery and the recovery time to come back to the normal value, and those 2 variables change their values for heterogeneity of the...
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The Relationship Between Gender, Current Relationship Status And Attachment Style Of Caregivers In Childhood ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION The area in which this research will observe is the affiliation between variables such as gender and current relationship status in relation to the attachment style which was received during childhood. The aim is to identify whether there is a link between these aspects and assess whether the attachment style one receives growing up determines the attachment...
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difference between the two groups (control and treatment) for change in mobility of the women with osteoarthritis (OA) over 12 weeks with the results of F(1, 22) = 9.619, p = 0.005. Discuss each aspect of these results. The F-value is high enough at the 5% level of significance to suggest a significant difference between the control and treatment groups. The p-value 0.005 < 0.05 hence this suggests a rejection of the null hypothesis, meaning that the control and treatment groups are found to...
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EFFECTS OF ROMANTIC RELATIONSHIPS ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE MATTHEW E. KOPFLER DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY LOYOLA UNIVERSITY Sponsored by: MUKUL BHALLA (bhalla@loyno.edu) [pic] ABSTRACT This study was conducted to discover whether or not there is an association between academic performance and involvement in a romantic relationship amongst undergraduate college students. The variables looked at were dating status (single or involved), level of involvement in the relationship, and grade point average...
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Shift: The Effects of Group Influence on Individual Risk-Taking Tee Kai Yee Department of Psychology University of Sheffield Abstract This experiment is a replication of Wallach, Kogan and Bem (1962) study on Group influence on individual risk taking. The aim for this experiment is to investigate the effects of shift in risk across the pre-discussion, group-discussion and post-discussion...
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AP Statistics Name ____________________________________________ Chapter 4 Practice Test Part I - Multiple Choice 1. Suppose that the scatterplot of (log x, log y) shows a strong positive correlation Which of the following must be true? I. The variables x and y also have a correlation close to 1. II. A scatterplot of (x, y) shows a strong nonlinear pattern. III. The residual plot of the variables x and y shows a random pattern. (a) I only (b) II only (c) III only (d) I and...
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Three Month Treasury Bills and The Variables That Affect the Rates Abstract This paper attempts to create two models that can predict fluctuations in three-month US Treasury Bill yields. Using both simple and multiple regression analysis, we analyze the independent variables traditionally associated with risk free U.S. money market interest rates including the Consumer Price Index, the Industrial Production Index, and the Unemployment rate over two periods, July 1990-March 2001 and March 2001-December...
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The Relationship Among Working Memory, Math Anxiety, and Performance Mark H. Ashcraft and Elizabeth P. Kirk Cleveland State University OBJECTIVE: The general focus of this research is to examine performance in standard cognitive frameworks and online tasks. The researchers hope to examine the influence that math anxiety exerts on mathematical cognition and to identify the processing components that are so influenced. HYPOTHESIS: The higher the math anxiety, the lower the working memory capacity...
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Abstract This paper will try to explain how there is a correlation between different parenting styles, different types of attachment and the different types of loving relationships -all according to different psychologists an their theories. It will try a prove it through interviews of two different cases, a person who has had a less fortunate childhood and a divorced marriage and a person who had a great childhood and a happy marriage. It will relate the two interviews back to the different theories...
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The Spearman Correlation Coefficient remains one of the most important nonparametric measures of statistical dependence between two variables. The Spearman Correlation Coefficient facilitates the assessment of two variables using a monotonic function. This representation is only possible if the variables are perfect monotones of each other and if there are no repeated data values. This enables one to obtain a perfect Spearman correlation of either +1 or -1. The Spearman correlation coefficient nonparametric...
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repeated measure ANOVA In a one-way repeated measures ANOVA design,each subject is exposed to two or more different conditions, or measured on the continuous scale onthree or more occasions. It can also be used to compare respondents’ responses to two or more questions or items. These questions, hiwever, must be meausred using the same scale.( Likert scale) Example of research question: Is there a change in confidence scores over the three time periods? What you need: One group of participants...
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To what extent can personality traits suggest an individual’s preference of film genre? Abstract This study investigates the relationship between personality and preference of film genre. Three scales of personality trait were selected from the International Personality Item Pool (IPIP) based on the revised version of the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R: Costa & McCrae, 1992) and were assessed using a questionnaire. To assess preference of film genre, 9 film trailers grouped...
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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN REWARDS AND EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION The study examined the influence of rewards (payment, promotion, recognition and benefits) on employee work motivation. Subjects for the study consisted of one hundred and sixty seven employees of commercial banks of Kohat, Pakistan. Data for the study were gathered through the administration of questionnaire. The data collected was subjected to appropriate statistical analysis using “Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient and Analysis...
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