STATISTICAL TEST • The first step in determining what statistical test to use is to determine the type of research question... to be answered by the statistical analysis. In elementary courses, the two basic types of questions are: 1. the degree of relationship or dependence among variables (H0 = there is no relationship or dependence, and the statistical test answers the question as to whether any relationship or dependence found is sufficiently different from zero that it can be considered...
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value > α (0.01). (2). The values of “r” show a positive correlation among the variables that means both... variables increases together. That’s why values of r have strongest possible relationship. According to Burns (2011), “The r values of +1.00 and -1.00 both indicate the strongest possible relationships among variables. Positive (+) 1.00 is the strongest or perfect positive relationship and indicates that variables change together, either increasing or decreasing simultaneously...
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between adult attachment classification and symptoms of... depression. By assessing adult attachment classifications in this study it is proposed it will identify individuals at risk to depressive symptoms and help in gaining a better understanding of the types of treatment interventions that may be most effective given an individual’s attachment style. One hundred undergraduate students will complete two online questionnaires each...
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developing theories, experimentation and summarizing information. The first two steps of the scientific method involve observation and description of a... phenomenon or group of phenomena and then formulating a question. The description must be reliable, replicable and valid (Wikipedia.org). Scientists will try and find a cause and effect relationship and that will lead to the development of theories. Scientists observe the phenomenon and will try to explain it with a hypothesis. A hypothesis is "an attempt...
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Central Coherence: Is it a single construct, with a relationship to mentalising? The past 20 years has seen much interest in the... development of cognitive profiles and mentalising ability, particularly in how they may account for some characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Two of the most influential theories to date are: (i) Weak Central Coherence theory (WCC), which posits that those with WCC focus on detailed (local) features and fail to apply a global context in understanding their...
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Do Standard Intelligence Tests Actually Measure Intelligence? The concept of intelligence has been widely debated throughout time following... the inception of the IQ test. Many theories have been proposed although no single definition of intelligence has been universally accepted with disagreement between researchers from biological and psychometric fields. The psychometric approach, which is the dominant field with respect to public attention and research, attempts to measure intelligence by means...
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The relationship between perfectionism and depression Abstract In this study, an investigation into the... relationship between perfectionism and depression was carried out using n=452 participants from the Liverpool area (United Kingdom). The level of depression the dependant variable was measured using the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (Zigmond, AS; Snaith, RP., 1983), whilst the independent variable perfectionism levels were measured using the Almost Perfect Scale – Revised (Slaney, Rice,...
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What is Correlational Research? The correlation research method is appropriate when researchers want to study and “assess... relationships among naturally occurring variables.” Assessment means making predictions about the nature of the relationships being studied. It also means describing the relations and assigning them a “correlation coefficient” that describes the direction and magnitude of the movement of variables to one another. There are many types of correlational research. The commonality...
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EXERCISE 36 6. Can ANOVA be used to test proposed relationships or... predicted correlations between variables in a single group? Provide rationale for your answer. ANOVA cannot be used to test proposed relationships or predicted correlations between variables in a single group because it is designed to test for correlations and interactions amongst groups, i.e. in the test group of patients with OA you are testing the correlations between those who do not use GI and PMR and those that do. Although...
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The T-TEST 1.0 INTRODUCTION The t-test was developed by W. S. Gossett, a statistician employed at the Guinness brewery. However,... because the brewery did not allow employees to publish their research, Gossett's work on the t-test appears under the name "Student". The t-test is sometimes referred to as "Student's t-test." Gossett was a chemist and was responsible for developing procedures for ensuring the similarity of batches of Guinness. The t-test was developed as a way of measuring how closely...
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The Relationship between Self-Esteem and Procrastination Psyc 1013 – Introduction to Research Methods in Psychology... ABSTRACT The study investigated the relationship between self-esteem and procrastination. A questionnaire was administered to a total of thirty (30) students from all faculties of the University of The West Indies Cave Hill Campus, who agreed to participate in the study. The responses obtained were recorded and the analyses were acquired through the entry of data into SPSS...
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SUMMARY OF THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL | Relationship Between Economic Growth & Inflation In China | | | Table of Contents... 1. Research Problem 1 1.1 Problem Statement 1 1.2 Significance of the problem 1 1.3 Research Sub-questions 1 2 Research Objectives 2 3. Research plan 2 3.1 Hypothesis 2 3.2 Variables 2 3.3 Data Collection 3 3.4 Methods of Analysis 3 5. Bibliography i 1. Research Problem 1.1 Problem Statement China’s economy has been growing rapidly during the past...
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The researchers found a significant difference between the two groups (control and treatment) for change in mobility of the... women with osteoarthritis (OA) over 12 weeks with the results of F (1, 22) = 9.619, p = 0.005. Discuss each aspect of these results. Answer: The F value suggests there is a significant difference between the results of the control and treatment groups. The P-value of 0.005 is < the alpha of 0.05.This suggest that the groups are significantly different and the null hypothesis...
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remain unmarried in their twenties. Increasing possibilities to achieve a higher education and therefore working in an appealing job has become increasingly... attractive to young women. This change in values also contributed to the increase in unmarried singles in their twenties. However, it is also possible that the influence of one’s family background is the crucial factor, since people with a higher socioeconomic standing will more easily attain higher levels of education than those who do not. There...
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Victimization: Processes That Mediate the Relation Between Peer Group Rejection and Children’s Classroom Engagement and... Achievement? Authors: Eric S. Buhs Gary W. Ladd and Sarah L. Herald The thought that peer exclusion is correlated with children’s classroom achievements and adjustment has been hypothesized since the 1930’s. Much research and empirical evidence for such hypotheses have since been collected, and seem to agree with the premise of the correlation. Peer acceptance is the main measurement...
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Ancova Statistics ANCOVA & Factorial ANOVA Part A. SPSS Activity Exploratory Data Analysis Data was... collected for students involved in a pilot research carried out to determine if 5th grade girls do better in small class sizes while boys excel in larger classes. Bar graphs were formulated to give a clear visual representation of the data and show the relationship between the two genders in the three situations of classroom sizes. (Walpole, 1987) Bar Graph...
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Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Exercise 36 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) I 1. A major significance is identifiable... between the control group and the treatment group with the F value at 5% level of significance. The p value of 0.005 is less than 0.05 indicating that the control group and the treatment group are indeed different. Based on this fact, the null hypothesis is to be rejected. 2. Null hypothesis: The mean mobility scores for the control group and the treatment group are equal. The null hypothesis...
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project I will try to explain the relationship between the oil prices, gold prices and stock market in the United State using... yearly time series data. Since the gold and oil prices are raising their influence on stock market is also increasing and we will see how fluctuations in oil prices and gold prices impact the stock market in the United States. So here oil prices and gold prices will be our explanatory variable and stock market index will be our explained variable. In this study we will use multiple...
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Long Distance Relationships: How Does Media Communication Impact on Relational Maintenance? A long distance relationship is... very challenging for college students to maintain without face to face interactions. The influences that media usage has on maintaining long distance relationships is a big part of communication. This research is going to examine the types of communication methods between long distance couples and then to determine which type is most suitable for a healthy and stable relationship...
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order to test the adverse reactions of the drug called Xynamine (a new drug designed to lower pulse rates) must be tested for their... effectiveness and the drug is tested only for males. Here, the treatment groups are divided into 3 categories they were placebo group (no treatment), 10-mg treatment group and 20-mg treatment group. Thus, the analysis test result is carried out using the technique of one-way analysis of variance ANOVA (Analysis of Variance - single factor). Assumptions of ANOVA The...
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be graded 1. The researchers found a significant difference between the two groups (control and treatment) for change in... mobility of the women with osteoarthritis (OA) over 12 weeks with the results of F(1, 22) = 9.619,p = 0.005. Discuss each aspect of these results. Answer F-value shows significance between the two groups. The null hypothesis should be rejected because the P-Value is 0.005 which would mean that the groups are different. 2. State the null hypothesis for the Baird and...
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the variable accurately reflect the phenomenon you are trying to measure. Reliability- does the indicator consistently assign the same number.... Cross-sectional data- no time/multiple entries. Panel data set- multiple entries/over time. Time series-one entry/time. Population: the total set of items or people that a researcher is interested in studying. Sample: a subset of the population- random or nonrandom. Goal is to be representative of population.Criteria for evaluating causal relationships. Time...
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Research Question Relationship to Research Design Lyn Shela Heck The research question or hypotheses narrows the purpose statement. It... predicts what will be learned and the questions studied. A research question must indicate a target population. It must identify the dependent variable and the independent variable(s) as well as answer what is the desired knowledge or conclusion. Accurate results come from a good research question. Variables must be clearly defined. Based on the data extrapolated...
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Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) I 1. The researchers found a significant difference between the two groups... (control and treatment) for change in mobility of the women with osteoarthritis (OA) over 12 weeks with the results of F(1, 22) 9.619, p 0.005. Discuss each aspect of these results. F is the statistic for ANOVA. F (1,22) one represents the number of groups in the study and 22 equals the subjects used the error df, and 9.619 is significant as it is P=0.005, it can be said that the intervention...
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CORRELATION REPORT Abstract This is a report of a study to assess the reliability and validity of the self-efficacy optimism personality... inventory, a subtest of the Questionnaire for the Assessment of Personal Optimism and Social Optimism Extended (POSO-E), as a predictor of achievement in an academic setting. “Self-efficacy optimism” refers to the tendency of expecting positive consequences based on one’s own behaviour. Fifty first year Psychology students completed a questionnaire that...
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MATH533: Applied Managerial Statistics PROJECT PART C: Regression and Correlation Analysis Using MINITAB perform the regression and... correlation analysis for the data on SALES (Y) and CALLS (X), by answering the following questions: 1. Generate a scatterplot for SALES vs. CALLS, including the graph of the "best fit" line. Interpret. After interpreting the scatter plot, it is evident that the slope of the ‘best fit’ line is positive, which indicates that sales amount varies directly...
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The Relationship Between Extraversion and Time Perception: A Correlational Study Abstract Eysenck stated that extraverts need... more stimulation (e.g. engaging, loud, exciting situations) for optimal performance, whereas introverts require minimal stimulation (e.g. quiet isolation). Does the extravert’s reliance on constant activity mean that they will underestimate a period of time if they are not in a stimulating situation? Will introverts appreciate the lack of stimulation and overestimate that...
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The purpose of this paper is to provide a response to a scenario by running a correlation and regression analysis for a statistics class... assignment. The assignment provides a scenario with two part, pursuing ways to develop and maintain online and blended programs (Szapkiw, 2014, p. 2). This assignment required the use of SPSS to “choose the appropriate tests . . . run the tests and analyze the data” (Szapkiw, 2014, p. 14). Structure This assignment has two aspects and seven sections for the...
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variance Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) is a generalized form of univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA). It is... used when there are two or more dependent variables. It helps to answer : 1. do changes in the independent variable(s) have significant effects on the dependent variables; 2. what are the interactions among the dependent variables and 3. among the independent variables.[1] Where sums of squares appear in univariate analysis of variance, in multivariate analysis of variance...
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EFFECTS OF ROMANTIC RELATIONSHIP ON SELF ESTEEM, IDENTITY AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE MUHAMMAD -. LUQMAN DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY BAHAUDDIN... ZAKRIYA UNIVERSITY MULTAN Sponsored by: HUMA WASEEM (waseem.huma@yahoo.com) ABSTRACT The present study aims at studying romantic relationship and its effects on academic performance, identity and self esteem. Parent and peer influences on academic achievement are well documented, but little research has examined links to romantic involvement during the adolescent...
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Correlation Chapter 10 Covariance and Correlation What does it mean to say that two variables are associated... with one another? How can we mathematically formalize the concept of association? Differences between Data Handling in Correlation & Experiment 1. Summarize entire relationship • We don’t compute a mean Y (e.g., aggressive behavior) score at each X (e.g., violent tv watching). We summarize the entire relationship formed by all pairs of X-Y scores. This is the major advantage...
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Correlation Correlation Co-efficient Definition: A measure of the strength of linear association between... two variables. Correlation will always between -1.0 and +1.0. If the correlation is positive, we have a positive relationship. If it is negative, the relationship is negative. Correlation Correlation can be easily understood as co relation. To define. correlation is the average relationship between two or more variables. When the change in one variable makes or causes a change in...
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provide information about the central tendency, dispersion, skew, and kurtosis of data, inferential statistics allow making broader statements about the... relationships between data. Inferential statistics are frequently used to answer cause-and-effect questions and make predictions. They are also used to investigate differences between and among groups. However, one must understand that inferential statistics by themselves do not prove causality. Such proof is always a function of a given theory, and...
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CORRELATION ANALYSIS (V. Imp) Meaning: -- If two quantities vary in such a way that movement in one are accompanied by movement in other,... these quantities are correlated. For example, there exits some relationship between age of husband and age of wife, price of commodity and amount demanded etc. The degree of relationship between variables under consideration is measured through correlation analysis. The measure of correlation called correlation coefficient. Thus, Correlation analysis refers...
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level, how models, techniques and methods constructed or borrowed from Economic Theory or other Sciences respectively are used to help... accomplish these tasks. To do so, we consider a standard theoretical model of consumer choices in an economy in which the only activity is the exchange of goods. Due to the above-mentioned we can say that the most powerful technique used to predict the consequences of policies or future trends is modeling. A model is an abstraction intended to convey the essence...
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Using Single- Subject Designs A Little History A major goal of psychology is to understand human and animal behaviour. Understanding a... particular behaviour means knowing what variables influence the behaviour and what functional relationships exist between these variables and behaviours. Psychology’s beginnings as an experimental discipline began in the latter half of the 19th century. Early researchers recognized the problems created by apparently random variations in the behaviour of their...
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Independent Variables Chapter 8 is devoted to dummy (independent) variables. This How To answers common questions on working... with and interpreting dummy variables. Questions: 1) How to include dummy variables in a regression? 2) How to interpret a coefficient on a dummy variable? 3) How to test hypotheses with dummy variables and interaction terms? 4) How to create a double-log functional form with dummy variables? 5) How to interpret a coefficient on a dummy variable with a log...
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The Relationship Between Gender, Current Relationship Status And Attachment Style Of Caregivers In Childhood... ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION The area in which this research will observe is the affiliation between variables such as gender and current relationship status in relation to the attachment style which was received during childhood. The aim is to identify whether there is a link between these aspects and assess whether the attachment style one receives growing up determines the attachment...
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AP Statistics Name ____________________________________________ Chapter 4 Practice Test Part I - Multiple Choice 1. Suppose that the... scatterplot of (log x, log y) shows a strong positive correlation Which of the following must be true? I. The variables x and y also have a correlation close to 1. II. A scatterplot of (x, y) shows a strong nonlinear pattern. III. The residual plot of the variables x and y shows a random pattern. (a) I only (b) II only (c) III only (d) I and...
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difference between the two groups (control and treatment) for change in mobility of the women with osteoarthritis (OA) over 12... weeks with the results of F(1, 22) = 9.619, p = 0.005. Discuss each aspect of these results. The F-value is high enough at the 5% level of significance to suggest a significant difference between the control and treatment groups. The p-value 0.005 < 0.05 hence this suggests a rejection of the null hypothesis, meaning that the control and treatment groups are found to...
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Shift: The Effects of Group Influence on Individual Risk-Taking Tee Kai Yee Department of Psychology University of... Sheffield Abstract This experiment is a replication of Wallach, Kogan and Bem (1962) study on Group influence on individual risk taking. The aim for this experiment is to investigate the effects of shift in risk across the pre-discussion, group-discussion and post-discussion...
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Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Indian Institute of Public Health Delhi MSc CR 2013-15 Outline of the session • Need for Analysis of... Variance • Concept behind one way ANOVA • Example • Non-parametric alternative When dependent variable is continuous Type of Dependent variable Type of Independent variable Number of Groups Continuous Categorical More than two Non-parametric (Wilcoxon sign rank) Paired t – test Not normal Non-parametric (Wilcoxon sign ...
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such as those induced by illness, fatigue, or drugs." (Hergenhahn & Olson, 2005, pg 8) Learning can occur from experience, classical... conditioning or operant conditioning. (Hergenhahn & Olson, 2005) Aristotle theorized through his laws of association that information can be recalled through contiguity, similarity or contrast. (Hergenhahn & Olson, 2005) Using the frontal lobes of our brain the information can be manipulated to form ideas or thoughts both directly or abstractly from the knowledge that...
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The Relationship Among Working Memory, Math Anxiety, and Performance Mark H. Ashcraft and Elizabeth P. Kirk Cleveland State University... OBJECTIVE: The general focus of this research is to examine performance in standard cognitive frameworks and online tasks. The researchers hope to examine the influence that math anxiety exerts on mathematical cognition and to identify the processing components that are so influenced. HYPOTHESIS: The higher the math anxiety, the lower the working memory capacity...
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Three Month Treasury Bills and The Variables That Affect the Rates Abstract This paper attempts to create two models that... can predict fluctuations in three-month US Treasury Bill yields. Using both simple and multiple regression analysis, we analyze the independent variables traditionally associated with risk free U.S. money market interest rates including the Consumer Price Index, the Industrial Production Index, and the Unemployment rate over two periods, July 1990-March 2001 and March 2001-December...
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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN REWARDS AND EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION The study examined the influence of rewards (payment, promotion,... recognition and benefits) on employee work motivation. Subjects for the study consisted of one hundred and sixty seven employees of commercial banks of Kohat, Pakistan. Data for the study were gathered through the administration of questionnaire. The data collected was subjected to appropriate statistical analysis using “Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient and Analysis...
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repeated measure ANOVA In a one-way repeated measures ANOVA design,each subject is exposed to two or more different conditions,... or measured on the continuous scale onthree or more occasions. It can also be used to compare respondents’ responses to two or more questions or items. These questions, hiwever, must be meausred using the same scale.( Likert scale) Example of research question: Is there a change in confidence scores over the three time periods? What you need: One group of participants...
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To what extent can personality traits suggest an individual’s preference of film genre? Abstract This study investigates the... relationship between personality and preference of film genre. Three scales of personality trait were selected from the International Personality Item Pool (IPIP) based on the revised version of the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R: Costa & McCrae, 1992) and were assessed using a questionnaire. To assess preference of film genre, 9 film trailers grouped...
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The relationship between handedness and hemispheric dominance? By Isaac Somerton This study was conducted to find a... relationship between handedness and hemispheric dominance. The participants in this investigation were all year 11 students in psychology 1A/B at Greenwood College. The data collected by the survey sheet was put into a table then graphed into two separate graphs; one graph for left and the other for right hemisphere dominance. The results that were found rejected the hypothesis of...
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An experiment to test whether Submaximal tests are valid predictor of V02 max. Abstract: Introduction: Maximal oxygen... uptake can be defined as the amount of 02 that a person can extract from the atmosphere and then transport and use in tissues (Kent 2006). McArdle et al (2006) explains that V02 max represents the greatest amount of oxygen a person can use to produce ATP aerobically during endurance or high intensity exercise. Therefore it is a measure of aerobic energy production. V02 max...
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2008) Typically, loneliness exists when a person’s social networks are fewer than expected and less satisfying than that person desires (Peplau & Caldwell,... 1978). Researchers hypothesized that gratitude and loneliness have a negatively correlated relationship. This study looks at seventy participants that completed the gratitude questionnaire: six item scale (McCullough, Emmons & Tsang, 2002) and UCLA loneliness scale, version 3 (Russell, 1996). Results did not support researcher’s hypothesis, as they...
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The Spearman Correlation Coefficient remains one of the most important nonparametric measures of statistical dependence between... two variables. The Spearman Correlation Coefficient facilitates the assessment of two variables using a monotonic function. This representation is only possible if the variables are perfect monotones of each other and if there are no repeated data values. This enables one to obtain a perfect Spearman correlation of either +1 or -1. The Spearman correlation coefficient nonparametric...
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Learning outcome: Discuss how and why particular research method are used at the biological level of analysis. The biological level of... analysis in psychology refers to the study of how human behaviour, thoughts and emotions can be affected and affect the biological factors/ physiology of human body. Laboratory experiments, case studies and correlation studies are the three main research methods applied in supporting the principles of the biological of analysis in psychology. First, laboratory...
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THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK A theoretical framework is a conceptual model of how one theorizes or makes logical sense of the relationship among... the several factors that have been identified as important to the research problem concerned. To put it simply a theoretical framework involves identifying the network of relationship among the variables considered important to the study .It provides the conceptual foundation to proceed further with the research. The theory is developed based on the documentation...
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PEARSON PRODUCT MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT Definition It is the measure of the linear correlation between... two variables X and Y It is the measure of the strength of a linear association between two variables and is denoted by r. It tells you how strong the linear correlation is for paired numeric data e.g. height and weight. The Pearson correlation coefficient, r, indicates how far away all these data points are to this line of best fit. Development It was the imagination and idea of Sir...
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EQT 271 Engineering Statistics UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PERLIS GROUP ASSIGNMENT EQT 271 ENGINEERING STATISTICS SEMESTER 2 SESSION 2012/2013... INSTRUCTIONS: 1. 2. 3. 4. Maximum of 5 persons in a group (should be in the same program). Due date: 28 MAY 2013. Report must be typewritten using A4 paper. The front cover for the report is as in Appendix 1. In this assignment, you will apply concepts of data approximation and fitting to some real data generated from your surveys. Each modeling tool gives...
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OF COLOR ON TEST PERFORMANCE 1 Effects of Color On Test Performance Taylor Alderson, Ovsanna Balian, Jacqueline... Christopher, Diana Macias Pasadena City College EFFECTS OF COLOR ON TEST PERFORMANCE Abstract The present experiment examined the consequences of exposure to the color red and its effects on achievement in test performance. In this study the ink color used to print a test was manipulated to determine the causal relationship between exposure to the color red and test 2 performance...
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disasters, and strengthening relationships, conflict has proved invaluable.”(13) Does conflict hinder a team’s ability to produce resolution in... differences? Can differences in opinions create stronger relationships and produce effective and efficient outcomes? In summation, can conflict among team members be a useful tool for leaders to resolve differences, create stronger relationships and produce effective and efficient outcomes. Research on cooperative conflict and group performance will provide...
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with hotel prices in a more or less linear way. To say it differently, price differences between hotels underscore the presence or not of some... variables expected to influence the latter. It is essential for hotels to understand how they can price their rooms and maximize yield while remaining competitive. Therefore, we conducted an extensive analysis to help hotel revenue managers find out what key variables influence price on Orbitz. The data were gathered from Orbitz.com directly. The data is about...
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A Study of Depression and Relationships A primary concern for Psychology research is depression. Depression affects a great deal of... our population and many aspects of an individual's mental health and well-being. In my research of books, articles, and Internet pages on depression, I chose to base my paper mainly on a 1994 article of a study of depression, entitled Depression, Working Models of Others, and Relationship Functioning, by Katherine B. Carnelley, Paula R. Pietromonaco, and...
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