Interface between the hardware and the rest: editors, compilers,
database systems, application programs, your programs, etc.
· Allows portability, enables easier programming,
· The manager of different resources (memory, CPU, disk, printer,
etc) in your system
· Takes responsibility...
What is a distributed system?
Course Goals and Content
Distributed systems and their:
issues, problems, and solutions
that the middleware layer extends over multiple machines.
Transparency in a Distributed System
Hide differences in data representation and how a
resource is accessed
Hide where a resource is located
Hide that a resource may move...
1.4.3 Multiprocessor Operating Systems
An increasingly common way to get major-league computing power is to connect
multiple CPUs into a single system. Depending on precisely how they are
connected and what is shared, these systems are called parallel computers,
multicomputers, or multiprocessors...
traditional ones to achieve the efficiency and flexibility needed. The solution appears to be to have a new kind of OS that is effectively a compromise between having no OS at all and having a large monolithic OS that does many things that are not needed. At the heart of this approach is a tiny operating system...
SECTION - I Compare betweenmultiprocessor operating system, multicomputer operating system, network operating system and middleware based distributed systems.  b) Explain different levels in client server application with suitable example. [ OR Q2) a) Explain different transparencies...
University of Technology
• Memory: could be shared or be private to each CPU
• Interconnect: could be shared (bus-based) or switched
Computer hardware models (1)
• Bus-based multiprocessor
• Homogeneous Multicomputer Systems
power consumption on processors and there is much on-going research in this
area. However, current processor power dissipation is at the limit of what can
be easily dealt with in desktop platforms and we must put greater emphasis on
improving performance in conjunction with new technology, specifically...
The Task of a Computer Designer
Technology and Computer Usage Trends
Cost and Trends in Cost
Measuring and Reporting Performance
Quantitative Principles of Computer Design
Putting It All Together: The...
Morgan Kaufmann nor the authors can be held
liable for changes or alterations in the ﬁnal edition.
DRAFT: Parallel Computer Architecture
DRAFT: Parallel Computer Architecture
1. Q: What is the role of middleware in a distributed system? A: To enhance the distribution transparency that is missing in network operating systems. In other words, middleware aims at improving the single-system view that a distributed system should have. 2. Q: Explain what is meant by (distribution)...
Computer Models 1.2 Multiprocessors and Multicomputers Considering their architecture only, there are two main categories of parallel computers:
systems with shared common memories, and systems with unshared distributed memories.
Shared-memory multiprocessor models:
Research Institute, ‡‡ EMC, and *University of Toronto and Platform Computing
Process migration is the act of transferring a process between two machines. It enables dynamic load distribution, fault resilience, eased system administration, and data access locality. Despite these goals and...
physical and logical ﬁle organization
Data Independence . . .
• Distributed database system is the union of what appear to be two diametrically opposed
approaches to data processing: database systems and computer network – Computer networks promote a mode of work...
Defines the structure of the system
functions of each component defined
interrelationships and interactions between components defined
A conceptual framework whose purpose is to divide standardization
response (e.g. typing on a keyboard) Proportionality • Meets user’s expectations Achieve fairness
" " "
What are the goals for PCs versus servers? Average response time vs. throughput Average response time vs. fairness
computers) I. Abd-El-Barr, Mostafa, 1950– II. Title. III. Series. QA76.9.A73E47 2004 004.20 2—dc22 2004014372 Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
To my family members (Ebtesam, Muhammad, Abd-El-Rahman, Ibrahim, and Mai) for their support and love —Mostafa Abd-El-Barr To my students...
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