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X-by-wire – Technologies and Protocols
Ankush Laxman1, B.N. Shobha2, Cyril P. Raj3
Dept. of Electronics and Electrical Engg. M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Bangalore, INDIA 1 2

ankush_576@yahoo.com b_n_shobha67@yahoo.com 3 cyrilyahoo@gmail.com

Abstract— X-by-wire is a promising technology that aims to reduce the number of components in a vehicle, improve the human-machine interface and improve vehicle efficiency and allow more flexibility for vehicle designers. In this paper, the various technologies with respect to components used, voltage requirements, software and prospective network protocols are discussed. In addition, challenges in implementing X-by-wire on a large scale and the future scope of this technology are reviewed. Keywords— Drive-by-wire, FlexRay, 42V system mechatronics, time-triggered,



X-by-wire, also known as Drive-by-wire, replaces the mechanical and hydraulic components used for throttle control, steering and braking by electrical and electronic components implemented on a high speed network. Various sub-systems make up X-by-wire. These are Throttle-by-wire, Steer-by-wire, Brake-by-wire, Shift-by-wire and Suspension-by-wire. Currently, mechanical and electronic components are implemented together in an X-by-wire vehicle. The implementation of mechanical and electronic components is known as mechatronics. Redundancy in such a system is required to provide a backup should the vehicle’s electronics fail. The implementation of X-by-wire systems will bring down the overall cost of the vehicle, reduce complexity, reduce vehicle weight and increase the efficiency of the vehicle. X-bywire also allows rapid tuning capability of the vehicle, thereby reducing development time, costs and effort. The use of X-by-wire systems will increase active and passive safety by making routine tasks such as throttle control, braking, steering and gear shifting easier for the driver. An X-by-wire system will assist the driver in finding solutions when faced with critical situations such as emergency braking [1].

The Bertone FILO is based on X-by-wire technology. It replaces the traditional mechanical and hydraulic systems used for steering, braking and gear shifting with a system of sensors, microcontrollers and actuators. The FILOs’ humanmachine interface, known as Guida allows the driver to control throttle, braking and steering, all from one unit. There are no pedals or gear shift levers. In addition to this, lights, windscreen wipers, heating, air-conditioning and audio, can all be controlled from a single interface. The FILO’s brake-by-wire system uses SKF’s electromechanical actuating units. The FILO uses a time-triggered communication system to ensure reliability of the vehicle’s network [2]. The Bertone Novanta is based on the FILO. Like the FILO, the Novanta also has Steer-by-wire and Brake-by-wire. Electromechanical brakes, jointly developed by Brembo and SKF are used in the Novanta. The Brake-by-wire system is flexible, it can be programmed to provide traction and stability control. Like the FILO, the Novanta also has the Guida human-machine interface. The Novanta also features an electronic parking brake system. This system automatically locks the rear wheels when the vehicle is placed in park. This electronic parking brake system can be programmed to prevent the vehicle from rolling backwards or forwards when on a steep gradient. It electronically locks the wheels to prevent vehicle theft [3]. The Mercedes Benz F400 Carving is another concept that features Steer-by-wire and Brake-bywire. The efficient Brake-by-wire system used on the F400 minimizes stopping distances from 600mph by 16.4 feet when compared with

conventional braking systems [4] which have a 600mph stopping distance of approximately 100 feet. Citroen has implemented Steer-by-wire and Brakeby-wire in the Citroen C5 by wire demonstration vehicle. The steering wheel alone is used to...
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