John Nash (mathematician), born in 1928, American mathematician and corecipient of the 1994 Nobel Prize in economics for his pioneering work in game theory. Nash shared the Nobel Prize with American economist John C. Harsanyi and German mathematician and economist Reinhard Selten Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2008. © 1993-2007 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Nash was born in 1928 in Bluefield, West Virginia. In 1948 he graduated from Carnegie Institute of Technology (now Carnegie Mellon University) in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, receiving both his bachelor’s and master’s degrees in mathematics because of his unusual brilliance. He received his doctorate from Princeton University in Princeton, New Jersey, in 1950. Professors at both schools labeled him a genius. Nash joined the faculty of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge from 1951 to 1959, but he resigned due to bouts with mental illness. He was diagnosed with schizophrenia. After brief stays in mental hospitals and a brief sojourn to Europe, Nash began an informal association with Princeton University, maintaining an office in Fine Hall—the building that houses the Department of Mathematics—but without holding a faculty position Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2008. © 1993-2007 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Ludwig van Beethoven
Ludwig van Beethoven is considered possibly the greatest Western composer of all time. He wrote symphonies, concertos, chamber music, sonatas, and vocal music. His best-known composition is the Ninth Symphony with its passionate chorus, the Ode to Joy. Beethoven began to lose his hearing in the 1790s and was completely deaf by 1818. Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2008. © 1993-2007 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827), German composer, considered one of the greatest musicians of all time. Having begun his career as an outstanding improviser at the piano and composer of piano music, Beethoven went on to compose string quartets and other kinds of chamber music, songs, two masses, an opera, and nine symphonies. His Symphony No. 9 in D minor op. 125 (Choral, completed 1824), perhaps the most famous work of classical music in existence, culminates in a choral finale based on the poem “Ode to Joy” by German writer Friedrich von Schiller. Like his opera Fidelio, op. 72 (1805; revised 1806, 1814) and many other works, the Ninth Symphony depicts an initial struggle with adversity and concludes with an uplifting vision of freedom and social harmony. Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2008. © 1993-2007 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reseAuthor of the best-selling book A Brief History of Time, physicist Stephen Hawking has strived to make difficult concepts in physics more accessible to the public. His discoveries about gravitation are regarded as some of the most important contributions to that area of physics since Albert Einstein introduced the general theory of relativity in 1915. Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2008. © 1993-2007 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. rved.
Hawking was born in Oxford, England, and he showed exceptional talent in mathematics and physics from an early age. He entered Oxford University in 1958 and became especially interested in thermodynamics (the study of the interaction of matter and energy), relativity theory, and quantum mechanics (see Quantum Theory). In 1961 he attended a summer course at the Royal Observatory that encouraged these interests. He completed his undergraduate courses in 1962 and received a bachelor’s degree in physics. Hawking then enrolled as a research student in general relativity at the department of applied mathematics and theoretical physics at the University of Cambridge. Hawking earned his Ph.D. degree from Trinity College at the University of Cambridge in 1966. He stayed at the University of Cambridge, doing post-doctoral research, until he became a professor of physics in 1977. He became one of the youngest fellows of the Royal Society in 1974. In 1979...
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