U.S. Presidents and Significant Events during Their Presidency

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AP United States History
American Presidents
01. George Washington [1789-1797] No Official Party Affiliation – sympathetic to Federalist Party policies Vice President – John Adams – Federalist MAJOR DOMESTIC AFFAIRS:  Adoption of the Bill of Rights 1791 (first ten amendments)  Judiciary Act of 1789 establishes federal courts and attorney general  Establishment of the Bank of the United States  Hamiltonian Fiscal Policies  Assumption of State Debts from Revolution  Establishment “full faith and credit” of the United States by paying off domestic and foreign loans for Revolution  Centralized bank for unified currency, loans, and savings  Whiskey Rebellion (Pennsylvania farmers against 1791 federal tax on whiskey; first test of Federal enforcement power) 1794  Farewell Address 1796 warns America to avoid “permanent alliances” MAJOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS:  Tariff of 1789 (revenue and protectionism)  Proclamation of Neutrality 1793 to keep America out of European wars  Jay Treaty with England (resolution of Treaty of Paris) 1794-95  Pinckney Treaty with Spain (free navigation of Mississippi) 1795  French Revolution  Storming of the Bastille 1789  Storming of the Tuileries 1792  Execution of Louis XVI 1793  Reign of Terror 1793 and Fall of Robespierre 1794  Failed insurrection of the sans-culottes 1795  The Directory 1795-1799  Genêt Affair 1793 saw French ambassador attempt to gain public support for the French Revolution; remains in America for fear of execution there 02. John Adams [1797-1801] – first President to live in the White House Federalist Vice President – Thomas Jefferson – Democratic Republican MAJOR DOMESTIC AFFAIRS:  Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions 1798: “compact” idea of Federalism  Alien and Sedition Acts 1798  Alien Friends Act (deportation of citizens of friendly nations)  Sedition Act (no resistance to Federal Laws or criticism of the national government)  Naturalization Act 1798 establishes 14 year residency requirement  Federal offices moved to new capitol, Washington, D.C.  John Marshall appointed Chief Justice of Supreme Court  Judiciary Act of 1801 and the “Midnight Judges” scandal MAJOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS:  French Revolution  Coup d’etat of Napoleon Bonaparte 1799  Napoleonic Empire established  X Y Z Affair 1797 saw French bribery of American officials over treaty with France leads to naval conflict but not war with France

03. Thomas Jefferson [1801-1809] Democratic Republican / Jeffersonian Republican Vice Presidents – Aaron Burr; George Clinton MAJOR DOMESTIC AFFAIRS:  Naturalization Act of 1802 (return to 5 years residency requirement)  Marbury v. Madison 1803 refutes Judiciary Act of 1798  Lewis & Clark Expedition 1804-1805  Ratification of the 12th Amendment (resolves election 1800 fiasco)  Impeachment proceedings against Associate Justice Samuel Chase 1804  Conspiracies of Aaron Burr  Secession attempt on New England states  Duel with Hamilton after Hamilton foils the plot; Hamilton is killed and Burr runs off to Louisiana Territory  Secession attempt with Louisiana Territory  Invasion of Mexico to extend “New Confederacy”  Burr betrayed by co-conspirator General James Wilkinson, Burr acquitted of treason charges, flees to Europe  Invasion of United States by France  Embargo Act of 1807 hurts domestic industry and trade by cutting off intercourse with Britain and France and other nations MAJOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS:  U.S. Marines sent to Tripoli to suppress the challenge to American merchant marine freedoms of the Barbary Pirates (1801-1805)  Spain refutes “right of deposit” from Pinckney Treaty 1802  Louisiana Purchase is 828,000 acres at 3 cents per acre to create an “Empire of Liberty” [April 30, 1803]  British Orders in Council restrict American shipping 1806  Embargo Act of 1807 is intended to punish Britain and France for posturing and threatening American merchant marine interests  Non-Intercourse Act of 1809 reopens...
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