U.S. History Test Notes

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AP US HISTORY

Colonial History (1600-1763)
1.
Separatist vs. non-Separatist Puritans
– Radical Calvinists againstthe Church of England; Separatists (Pilgrims) argued for a break from the Church of England, led the Mayflower, and establishedthe settlement at Plymouth 2.
Northwest Passage
– believed to provide shortcut from Atlantic toPacific, searched for by Giovanni de Verrazano for Francis I in therace to Asian wealth 3.
Conversion Experience
– required of members of the PuritanChurch; took the place of baptism required by the Catholic Church 4.
Social Reciprocity
– society naturally punishes criminalsindiscriminantly
5.
Church of England
– Protestant church led by the king of England,independent of Catholic Church; tended toward Catholicism duringreign of Catholic royalty 6.
Atlantic slave trade
– often debtors sold to slave traders by Africankings seeking riches; Columbian Exchange 7.
Jamestown
– first permanent English settlement in the Americas(1607), along James River 8.
John Smith
– introduced work ethic to Jamestown colony, sanitation,diplomat to local Native American tribes; had fought Spanish andTurks 9.
Pocahontas
– key to English-Native American relationship, died inEngland in 1617 10.
Mayflower Compact
– foundation for self-government laid out by the first Massachusetts settlers before arriving on land 11.
John Winthrop
– Calvinist, devised concept of “city on a hill”(“A Model of Christian Charity”); founded highly successful townsin Massachusetts Bay 12.

City on a Hill”
– exemplary Christian community, rich toshow charity, held to Calvinistic beliefs 13.
Indentured servants
– settlers to pay the expenses of aservant’s voyage and be granted land for each person they broughtover; headright system 14.
Maryland Act of Religious Toleration (1649)
– mandated thetoleration of all Christian denominations in Maryland, even thoughMaryland was founded for Catholics (but majority was protestant) 15.
James I, Charles I
– reluctant to give colonists their owngovernment, preferred to appoint royal governors 16.
William Penn and the Quakers
– settled in Pennsylvania, believed the “Inner Light” could speak through any person and ranreligious services without ministers 17.
Roger Williams
– challenged New Englanders to completelyseparate Church from State, as the State would corrupt the church 18.
Anne Hutchinson
– challenged New England Calvinistministers’ authority, as they taught the good works for salvation of Catholicism 19.
The Half-Way Covenant
– New Englanders who did not wishto relate their conversion experiences could become half-way saintsso that their children would be able to have the opportunity to besaints 20.
Bacon’s Rebellion
– rebels felt the governor of Virginia failedto protect the frontier from the Native Americans Independence (1763-1789)
21.
Navigation Acts
– only English and American ships allowed tocolonial ports; dissent began in 1763 22.
Mercantilism
– ensured trade with mother country, nationalism;too restrictive on colonial economy, not voted on by colonists 23.
Charles II, James II
– tried to rule as absolute monarchswithout using Parliament, little to no sympathy for coloniallegislatures 24.
William and Mary
– ended the Dominion of New England,gave power back to coloniesKSJ 2006

2
25.
Dominion of New England
– combined Massachusetts, NewHampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Plymouth (and later Jersey and New York) into one “supercolony” governed by Sir Edmond Andros, a “supergovernor” 26.
The Glorious Revolution
– William and Mary kicked James II outof England (exiled into France), allowed more power to thelegislatures 27.
James Oglethorpe
– established colony of Georgia as a place for honest debtors 28.
The Enlightenment
– emphasis on human reason, logic, andscience (acquired, not nascent, knowledge); increased followers of Christianity 29.
Benjamin Franklin
– connected the colonies to Britain, opposed tounnecessary...
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