S H E E T
Anatomy of the Composite Cell
1. Define the following terms:
are the metabolic machinery of the cell, the are highly organized tp carry out specific functions of the organelle: cell as a whole.
the structural and functional unit of all living things.
2. Although cells have differences that reflect their specific functions in the body, what functions do they have in common? All cells can maintain their own boundaries, metabolize, digest nutrients and digest of wastes, grow and reproduce, move 3. Identify the following cell parts:
lysosomes mitochondria microvilli inclusiuons gogli apparatus nucleus centrioles nucleolus
1. external boundary of cell; regulates flow of materials into and out of the cell; site of cell signaling 2. contains digestive enzymes of many varieties; “suicide sac” of the cell 3. scattered throughout the cell; major site of ATP synthesis 4. slender extensions of the plasma membrane that increase its surface area 5. stored glycogen granules, crystals, pigments, and so on 6. membranous system consisting of flattened sacs and vesicles; packages proteins for export 7. control center of the cell; necessary for cell division and cell life 8. two rod-shaped bodies near the nucleus; direct formation of the mitotic spindle 9. dense, darkly staining nuclear body; packaging site for ribosomes
10. contractile elements of the cytoskeleton endroplasmic reticulum 11. membranous system; involved in intracellular transport of proteins and synthesis of membrane lipids ribosomes 12. attached to membrane systems or scattered in the cytoplasm; synthesize proteins chromatin 13. threadlike structures in the nucleus; contain genetic material (DNA) peroixsome 14. site of free radical detoxification
4. In the following diagram, label all parts provided with a leader line.
smooth endoplasmic reticulum nucleus cytosol
intermediate filaments peroxisome
Differences and Similarities in Cell Structure
5. For each of the following cell types, list (a) one important structural characteristic observed in the laboratory, and (b) the function that the structure complements or ensures. squamous epithelium a. b. sperm a. b. smooth muscle a. b. they are flat shaped _____________________________________________________________________________ good for layering _____________________________________________________________________________ Flagella _____________________________________________________________________________ allows the cell to be mobile _____________________________________________________________________________
has a fusiform shape _____________________________________________________________________________ allows the muscles to contract and relax _____________________________________________________________________________
Review Sheet 4
red blood cells a. b.
biconcave shape ____________________________________________________________________________________ allows more surface area to allow for efficient gas transfer ____________________________________________________________________________________
The lack of a nucleus enables 6. What is the significance of the red blood cell being anucleate (without a nucleus)? _________________________________ the rbc to have more room to contain haemoglobin which increases its efficiency to carrying oxygen. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________
yes When they are formed in the bone-marrow, they contain a nucleus, but w Did it ever have a nucleus? __________ If so, when? ________________________________________________________
7. Of the four cells observed microscopically (squamous...