From a gymnastic point of view movements are divided into Active and Passive. By active movements we mean those in which the patient's muscles are innervated and brought into action. By passive movements we mean those performed in the patient's joints by some outside force, his muscles not being used. Active movements are divided into -
1. Free movements, performed by the patient himself without the assistance of the operator, e.g., Standing 2 (double) Arm-raising-outward and-upward. 2. Resistance movements, performed with the help of an active operator. Resistance movements are divided into -
Elements of Space
Shape is an aspect of the element of space. Shape is perhaps the strongest visual component in dance. The term shape may refer to individual body shapes (the way in which 3-dimensional space is used by the body) and group shapes. Body shapes are present in all actions in dance. Shapes in dance convey meaning.
There are many types of shapes:
* shapes with straight lines and angles
* curving or organic shapes
* open and closed shapes
* symmetrical and asymmetrical shapes
* harmonious and contrasting shapes
* centred and off-centre shapes.
Shapes with straight lines and angles
Students can make shapes with straight lines and angles relatively easily because of the straightness of the bones and the way the body is jointed. Simple angular shapes are also easy to recognise and learn. Angular shapes and actions can convey a range of meanings e.g.