M Odeling of Statcom and Upfc for Power System Steady State Operation and Control

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M
ODELING OF STATCOM AND UPFC FOR POWER SYSTEM STEADY STATE OPERATION AND CONTROL

Vaibhav Dahiya
Author Registration No: UE111041

* Department of EEE, UIET, PANJAB UNIVERSITY, CHD , INDIA , vaibhavdahiya89@gmail.com

Keywords:Powerflow,NewtonRaphson,FACTS
controller, STATCOM, UPFC

Abstract

In recent years, energy, environment, deregulation of power utilities have delayed the construction of both generation facilities and new transmission lines. These problems have necessitated a change in traditional concepts and practices of power systems. There are emerging technologies available, which can help electric companies to deal with above problems. One of such technologies is Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS). Among the converter based FACTSdevicesStaticSynchronousCompensator (STATCOM) and Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) are the popular FACTS devices. Considering the practical application of the STATCOM and UPFC in power systems, it is of importance and interest to investigate the benefits as well as model these devices for power system steady state operation. We have performed the power flow study of a five bus study system without any FACTS devices and further analyzed it with the converter based FACTS controllers. Programming of the power flow studies stated above is implemented with MATLAB.

1 Introduction

The electricity supply industry is undergoing a profound transformation worldwide. Market forces, scarcer natural resources, and an ever-increasing demand for electricity are some of the drivers responsible for such an unprecedented change. Against this background of rapid evolution, the expansion programmes of many utilities are being thwarted by a variety of well-founded, environmental, land use, and regulatory pressures that prevent the licensing and building of new transmission lines and electricity generating units. An in- depth analysis of the options available for maximizing existing transmission assets, with high levels of reliability and stability, has pointed in the direction of power electronics. There is general agreement that novel power electronics equipment and techniques are potential substitutes for conventional solutions, which are normally based on electromechanical technologies that have slow response times and high maintenance costs. [1] –[3].

Until recently, active and reactive power control in AC transmission networks was exercised by carefully adjusting transmission line impedances, as well as regulating terminal voltages by generator excitation control and by transformer tap changes. At times, series and shunt impedances were employed to effectively change line impedances. FACTS technology is most interesting for transmission planners because it opens up new opportunities for controlling power and enhancing the usable capacity of present, as well as new and upgraded, lines. The possibility that current through a line can be controlled at a reasonable cost enables a large potential of increasing the capacity of existing lines with large conductors, and use of one of the FACTS controllers to enable corresponding power to flow through such lines under normal and contingency conditions.

The importance of power flow analysis and the methods implied are explained along with the basic formulation of Newton Raphson power flow method in section II. In section III modeling of the various FACTS devices are discussed in detail along with the modeling equations. Power flow analysis of the study system with various FACTS devices are dealt in section IV. Section V gives the comparison of the results of the various systems and conclusion.

2 Power Flow Analysis

Planning the operation of power systems under existing conditions, its improvement and also its future expansion require the load flow studies, short circuit studies and stability...
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