New attitudes towards pictorial space and geometric abstraction with geometric planes (but still based on real objects) -Influenced by African tribal masks/ breaking natural objects into planes/shapes. -Figures simultaneously seen from more than one view through relationships of geometric planes. -Analytical cubism based on process of human vision, eyes scan a subject then compile it into a whole. -Introduced collage, allowed for composition free of subject matter, declared a painting as a three dimensional object. Materials/media as signifiers. -Structural Cubism portrayed only the essence of an object, not its outward appearance.
Utopian, Pro war and technology, about time and motion/dynamism, introduction of typography as art. -Began with published Italian manifesto in Italy 1909
-Glorification /romantic view of war as a means of cleansing society, machine age, speed, modern life. -Aesthetic harmony/tradition rejected in favour of velocity, sound and the diagonal line. -Russian futurism, introduction of typography to art/ as an expressive form in dynamic, non linear composition, dispersal of sound and silence on a page. Union of poetry and painting. - Influenced by cubism and motion photography, vorticism, simultaneity – the total work of art, art not separate from life. Cubo-futurism and rayonism (dynamic cubism)
WWI (1914 – 1918)
-Catalysed by assassination of Heir to Austro-Hungarian throne, Franz Ferdinand in time of great political tension. -Spread worldwide, millions killed both in battle/from disease/poverty. -Historic grievance (Prussia defeats France), colonial expansion (empire envy), rise of nationalism, threat of new thinking, arms race (politics of the binary, they have one we need one). Lasted five years, created 9 new countries. -Communication artist ‘designed’ the ideas of the enemy, propaganda posters. -Trench warfare, new industrial technology of communications, air, armoured tanks, navy, small arms which were thought to make war faster, ‘more efficient’. -By end of war nations economically/socially crippled, depression prevailed throughout inter-war years. Political division between left and right, totalitarian rule (communism in Soviet Union, fascism in Germany, Italy, Spain.) -American economic growth and the fordist method, great depression of 1929.
PIONEER MOVEMENTS THAT AROSE FROM/ DURING THE WAR
Dystopian, began as reaction against World War I, anti art, rejected tradition, changed way idea of art/ what it is to be an artist. -Against decadence of European society, the blind faith in technology, consumer culture and inadequacy of religion. -Duchamp and the idea of the ‘ready-made’, attack on a society that had ‘lost the humanistic spirit of the renaissance’, criticism of paint and canvas as a readymade. Not creating art but mocking a society gone insane. - Satirical and irrational, replaced logic with relativism (human nature as governed by egotistical impulse, intuition need to understand reality). Against Freud’s idea that therapy will help man cope with his social position. -Introduction of the photomontage. Reflective of post war injuries, need to put people back together again. -Fragmented composition, flat plane, collage, print and photography, self reflexive. -Rejected machine aesthetic which undermined individuality and advocated collectivism. - Enriched the visual vocabulary that rejected tradition as initiated by the futurists, continued concept of letterforms as shapes not just phonetic signals.
Emerged parallel to Dada, explored new Freudian theories of the subconscious/ dreams. -Intended to express true nature of thought when free from reason/aesthetic preoccupation. -Poetic faith in spirit of man, ‘naturalists of the imaginary’ as well as naturalistic approach to simultaneity. Art and everyday life indistinct. - Dreamscapes between reality and illusion. Fantasy and...