Theory of Second Language Acquisition|
"Language acquisition does not require extensive use of conscious grammatical rules, and does not require tedious drill." Stephen Krashen|
This paper is going to talk about Krashen's theory of second language acquisition, which has had a large impact in all areas of second language research and teaching since the 1980s. There are 5 keys hypotheses about second language acquisition in Krashen´s theory: 1. THE ACQUISITION-LEARNING DISCTINCTION
There are two independent systems of second language performance: 'the acquired system' and 'the learned system'. The 'acquired system' or 'acquisition' is the product of a subconscious process very similar to the process children undergo when they acquire their first language. It requires meaningful interaction in the target language - natural communication - in which speakers are concentrated not in the form of their utterances, but in the communicative act. The 'learned system' or 'learning' is the product of formal instruction and it comprises a conscious process which results in conscious knowledge 'about' the language, for example knowledge of grammar rules. According to Krashen 'learning' is less important than 'acquisition'. 2. THE MONITOR HYPOTHESIS
The Monitor hypothesis explains the relationship between acquisition and learning and defines the influence of the latter on the former. The monitoring function is the practical result of the learned grammar. According to Krashen, the acquisition system is the utterance initiator, while the learning system performs the role of the 'monitor' or the 'editor'. The 'monitor' acts in a planning, editing and correcting function when three specific conditions are met: that is, the second language learner has sufficient time at his/her disposal, he/she focuses on form or thinks about correctness, and he/she knows the rule. It appears that the role of...