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Government of India

b i n n o v a i c u l t u r w u s i n e s f

E N T R E P R E N E UR S H I P m n a
d c a t i o n u o n P l o y m e n t l t h e v i r o n m e n t n a n c e

A Study by National Knowledge Commission

Entrepreneurship in India
National Knowledge Commission 2008

©National Knowledge Commission, 2008

This report has been prepared by Amlanjyoti Goswami, Namita Dalmia and Megha Pradhan with support and guidance from Dr. Ashok Kolaskar and Mr. Sunil Bahri.

Table of Contents
Acknowledgements Executive Summary Chapter I Chapter II Chapter III Chapter IV Chapter V Chapter VI Chapter VII Annexure I : : : : : : : : Introduction: Why Entrepreneurship What Motivates Entrepreneurship Socio-cultural Factors Access to Early Stage Finance Education, Innovation and Entrepreneurship Business Environment for Entrepreneurship Conclusion: Encouraging Entrepreneurship List of Stakeholders and Details of Entrepreneurs Surveyed Entrepreneurship Profiles Methodology List of Resources Glossary vii viii 1 9 21 29 49 71 89 97 105 163 165 169

Annexure II : Annexure III : Annexure IV : Annexure V :

Table of Contents iii

List of Figures
Figure 1.1 : Figure 1.2 : Figure 2.1 : Figure 2.2 : Figure 2.3 : Figure 2.4 : Figure 2.5 : Figure 2.6 : Figure 2.7 : Figure 2.8 : Figure 2.9 : Figure 2.10 : Figure 3.1 : Figure 3.2 : Figure 3.3 : Figure 3.4 : Figure 3.5 : Figure 4.1 : Figure 4.2 : Figure 4.3 : Figure 4.4 : Figure 4.5 : Figure 4.6 : Figure 4.7 : Figure 4.8 : Entrepreneurship Pyramid Registration of new companies according to nature of economic activity Motivation to become an entrepreneur Highest motivation – Variations according to region Motivation – Variations according to gender Motivation – Variations according to age Motivation – Variations according to family background Motivation – Variations according to time periods Motivation – Variations according to level of work experience Positive factors Positive factors – Variations according to gender Positive factors – Variations according to age Family support to entrepreneurs Family support – Variations according to region Family support – Variations according to family background Family support to first generation entrepreneurs – Variations according to work experience Gender as a factor in entrepreneurship Sources of start-up phase funding Sources of self financing Sources of self financing – Variations according to gender Access to finance from banks at different phases Access to finance from banks – Variations according to family background Access to finance from banks – Variations according to time periods Perceptions on venture capital Investments by sector – Number of deals 5 6 10 11 12 13 13 14 15 17 18 18 23 24 24 25 25 29 30 30 31 32 32 33 41

iv Entrepreneurship in India

Figure 4.9 : Figure 4.10 : Figure 4.11 : Figure 5.1 : Figure 5.2 : Figure 5.3 : Figure 5.4 : Figure 5.5 : Figure 5.6 : Figure 5.7 : Figure 5.8 : Figure 5.9 : Figure 5.10 : Figure 6.1 : Figure 6.2 : Figure 6.3 : Figure 6.4 : Figure 6.5 : Figure 6.6 : Figure 6.7 : Figure 6.8 : Figure 7.1 : Figure A.1 : Figure A.2 : Figure A.3 : Figure A.4 : Figure A.5 :

PE/VC investments by industry in 2007(Total US$ 14.2 Bn) Growth of venture capital and private equity in India, 2000-2007 Investments by stage– Number of deals Building synergies Importance of education Qualification of entrepreneurs Qualification of entrepreneurs – Variations according to time period MBA and entrepreneurship – Variations according to time period Profile of MBA graduates in different time periods – Variations according to work experience Availability of skills Issues of skills Issues with skills – Variations according to type of skills Issues of skills – Variations according to age of enterprise Problems faced by entrepreneurs Information deficit as a hurdle Obtaining licenses as a hurdle - Variations according to time period Problems relating to taxation Helpfulness of legal system Availabilty of infrastructure...
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