|Rabindranath Tagore | |[pic] | |Tagore c. 1915, the year he was knighted byGeorge V. Tagore repudiated his | |knighthood, in protest against the Jallianwala Bagh massacrein 1919. | |Born |May 7, 1861 | | |Calcutta, Bengal Presidency,British India | |Died |7 August 1941 (aged 80) | | |Calcutta, Bengal Presidency, British India | |Occupation |Poet, short-story writer, song composer, novelist, | | |playwright, essayist, and painter | |Language |Bengali, English | |Nationality |Indian | |Ethnicity |Bengali | |Notable work(s) |Gitanjali, Gora, Ghare-Baire,Jana Gana Mana, Rabindra | | |Sangeet, Amar Shonar Bangla(other works) | |Notable award(s) |Nobel Prize in Literature | | |1913 | |Spouse(s) |Mrinalini Devi (m. 1883–1902) | |Children |five children, two of whom died in childhood | |Relative(s) |Tagore family | |[pic] | |Signature |[pic] |
Rabindranath Tagoreα[›]β[›] [pic] pronunciation (help·info) (Bengali: রবীন্দ্রনাথ ঠাকুর; 7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941),γ[›] sobriquetGurudev,δ[›] was a Bengali polymath who reshaped his region's literature and music. Author of Gitanjali and its "profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse", he became the first non-European to win the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1913. In translation his poetry was viewed as spiritual and mercurial; his seemingly mesmeric personality, flowing hair, and other-worldly dress earned him a prophet-like reputation in the West. His "elegant prose and magical poetry" remain largely unknown outside Bengal. Tagore introduced new prose and verse forms and the use of colloquial language into Bengali literature, thereby freeing it from traditional models based on classical Sanskrit. He was highly influential in introducing the best of Indian culture to the West and vice versa, and he is generally regarded as the outstanding creative artist of modern India.
A Pirali Brahmin from Calcutta, Tagore wrote poetry as an eight-year-old. At age sixteen, he released his first substantial poems under the pseudonym Bhānusiṃha ("Sun Lion"), which were seized upon by literary authorities as long-lost classics. He graduated to his first short stories and dramas—and the aegis of his birth name—by 1877. As a humanist, universalist internationalist, and strident anti-nationalist he denounced the Raj and advocated independence from Britain. As an exponent of the Bengal Renaissance, he advanced a vast canon that comprised paintings, sketches and doodles, hundreds of texts, and some two thousand songs; his legacy endures also in the institution he founded, Visva-Bharati University.
Tagore modernised Bengali art by spurning rigid classical forms and resisting linguistic strictures. His novels, stories, songs, dance-dramas, and essays spoke to topics political and personal. Gitanjali (Song Offerings), Gora (Fair-Faced), and Ghare-Baire (The Home and the World) are his best-known works, and his verse, short stories, and novels were acclaimed—or...