Essential Question: What new ideas arose in this time period that forever changed European society?
Humanism – focus on humankind as center of intellectual & artistic endeavor; superiority of classical forms over medieval styles Martin Luther – German monk initiated Protestant Reformation 1571; 95 theses, emphasized primacy of faith over works stressed in Catholic Church, accepted state control of Church Jean Calvin – 16th century French Protestant stress predestination; est. center of group at Geneva, Switz.; wider access to gov’t & public education; spread from Switzerland to N Europe & N America Proletariat – class of working people w/out access to wealth-producing property; manufacturing workers, paid agricultural laborers, or urban poor; product of economic changes in 16th and 17th century Europe
Johannes Gutenburg – introduced moveable type to W Europe in 15th century; result: many printed books & pamphlets available
Mercantilism – economic theory stress gov’ts promotion of limit imports and int. economies to improve tax revenues
The First Big Changes: Culture and Commerce
Where did the European Renaissance begin? Italian – 1300-1450; Northern – 1450-1600 Who were some of the prominent figures of the Italian Renaissance? Petrarch, Boccaccio, Leonardo da Vinci, Machiavelli Describe the changes that occurred in Western culture with regards to religion during this period. Religion not attacked, principles no longer predominant. Themes of humanism focus on humankind as center of intellectual and artistic endeavor. Explain how leaders of the Italian city-states justified their rule. Justified rule if able to improve general welfare & city’s glory; sponsor cultural act., improve the admin of economy; dev. pro armies, focus on military tactics/training, exchange of ambassadors When did the Northern Renaissance begin? After 1450
How did the Northern Renaissance differ from the Italian Renaissance? Northern humanists more religious than Italians; try to blend secular interests w/ Christian devotion; writers mixed classical themes w/ medieval popular culture; revenues & operations expand, kings more ceremonies, sponsor trading co. & colonial enterprises; greater interest in military conquest. Francis I want to ally w/ the Ottoman sultan to distract Habsburg ruler of Austria & Spain, demonstrate power politics abandon feudal/religious customs What remained the same in Europe despite the new ideas introduced during the Renaissance? Kings no absolute power b/c of political powers of feudal landlords. Ordinary people barely impacted. Rural people burdened w/ new taxes to support cities & kings. Who invented the printing press? Johannes Gutenburg
What changes resulted in Europe from the invention of the printing press? More printed books and pamphlets available to all, literacy rising, wider audience for Renaissance writers, gave way to newer sources of thinking, disseminated religious ideas Describe what the European-style family was like. Late marriage age, nuclear families, importance of husband-wife relations, closely linked family to individual property holdings, could not marry if no access to property When/how/why did the Reformation start? 1517 – Martin Luther’s 95 theses b/c he felt that some Catholic doctrines were wrong What reforms to the Catholic Church did Luther propose? No more monasticism, state control of Church, no more celibacy for priest, Bible should be translated into vernacular languages so anyone can read the Bible and have direct access to teachings Explain why many German princes supported Luther. They didn’t like the authority and taxes of the Pope. They saw an opportunity to gain more power because their leader, the Holy Roman Emperor, was Catholic. Explain why many peasants supported Luther. Approval for rebelling against their own landlords, even though Luther renounced it; drawn to approval of the work of the world; sanctioned...