CASE 1 : ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE TOURISM INDUSTRY
Individually, hotels do not have a significant negative impact on the environment. Collectively however, they can be very wasteful and consume huge amount of resources. It has been estimated that seventy-five per cent of hotels' environmental impacts can be directly related to excessive consumption (Bohdanowicz, 2006). This is wasteful in terms of resources and it creates unnecessary operational costs. The three key areas of environmental impact are energy, water, and waste. ENERGY CONSUMPTION
Excessive energy use is extremely costly and with minor adjustments, it can lead to massive cost savings. According to Gössling et. al. (2005), "the average energy consumption per bed per night in hotels might be in the order of 130 Mega joules. Hotels generally use more energy per visitor than local residents, as they have energy intense facilities, such as bars, restaurants, and pools, and have more spacious rooms" (Gössling et. al. 2005:6). Studies have determined that a hotel emits an average 20.6 kg of carbon dioxide per night (Gössling et al., 2005). Also, based on another study by Energy Savings by CHCP Plants, energy consumption in hotel accounts for between 3 per cent and 6 per cent of total running costs, so there is to gain from measures given a suitable relation between the comfort and energy consumption of energy. Inside a hotel, the main energy consuming systems are heating, air conditioning, hot water production, lighting, electricity and cooking. The decision to proceed with a cogeneration project is basically an investment decision. Like any other investment, cogeneration plants involve the expenditure of capital to gain additional assets. These assets are expected to provide a predetermined minimum attractive rate of return. Investment decisions are influenced by both present and future costs, so for medium-sized or large and not seasonal hotel the pay-back period seems to be around three...
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