In this world, there are many different races in a country. Each race has its own uniqueness and it is what people known as culture. Culture has been described by Hofstede as it is the programming of mind (Hofstede and Gert 2005, 2). Culture can be seen through religions, behaviour of the people and the way they dress and etc. (Fletcher and Crawford 2011, 71). In order to understand better about the cultural dimensions in many different countries, Hofstede’s cultural dimensions can describe all of these differences among countries within the five categories of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions and it covers the behaviour of people across the countries and the index of Hofstede’s five cultural dimensions in countries around the world.
The purpose of this report is to describe the category of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions and the implication in our own country and our point of view about the categories in our country.
2.0 Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions
There are five categories of Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions , which are power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism versus collectivism, masculinity versus feminity and long term orientation versus short term orientation (Hasegawa and Noronha 2009, 108). These are all the key drivers of the variation of cultures among the countries. 3.1 Power Distance
Power Distance means that the members of the community accept and expect the fact that there is inequality among the higher ranking and the lower ranking people in the workplace. In other words, there is a distinction in hierarchy between the bosses and the subordinates. In countries which implement this kind of cultural dimension, the country will have higher power distance index compare to those countries which do not implement this cultural dimension. The high power distance is applied in Malaysia which has the highest index of power distance of 104. It means the subordinates have strong obedience personalities (Laznjak 2011, 1018). 3.2 Uncertainty Avoidance
Uncertainty avoidance measures that whether the people in the country tolerate the ambiguous and unclear situation. It covers whether the people feel comfortable or uncomfortable with this situation. In countries whose people feel comfortable with unstructed situations are countries with low level of uncertainty avoidance whereas countries whose people can not tolerate unstructed situations are countries with high level of uncertainty avoidance (Aldulaimi and Sailan 2012, 183). For instance, Greece is the country with the highest uncertainty avoidance with the index of 112 , meanwhile Singapore has far lower index than Greece which is 8, it means Singaporeans are comfortable with unstructed situations. 3.3 Individualism versus Collectivism
Individualism indicates that the ties are loose between one person to other people. The loose ties result in people care about themselves rather than caring about their families and friends, for instance, USA. On the other side, collectivism has the opposite meaning from individualism which is the ties between individuals are tight and this is implemented in the countries which have the extended families, the decision made is also affected by the people surrounding them. For example, Indonesia (Brice 2012, 271). 3.4 Masculinity versus Femininity
Masculinity refers to when the role of a man is dominating in the job distribution. There is also fact states that the competition between men in the job are described as fierce and it is maximized. It is different from the role of women in job distribution. Women are described as having the caring personality which is called femininity. The competition between women is not as fierce as the competition between men (Mooij and Hofstede 2010, 89). Japan is the country which has the highest level of masculinity while Sweden has the lowest level of masculinity with the index of 5. 3.5 Long Term Orientation versus Short Term...