Definitions and Measurements of F&E Impacts
1. Introduction 3
2. Event Impacts 3
Economic & Political
Technological & Environmental
Managerial & Physical
3. Chronological & Geographical 6
foci of Impact Assessment
4. Methodologies of Impact Assessment7
5. Conclusion 7
6. References 8
Festivals and events is an increasing market, globally; be it conferences, sporting events, concerts, exhibitions etc., events are being noticed, visited, enjoyed and therefore more demanded. According to Arcodia & Whiteford (2008), festivals served the purpose of ‘communal gatherings’ considering the Carnival of Europe (Pardy, 1991) for example. Whereas, for Allen et al (2008), events did not serve as a purpose of fulfilling leisure time; for example, Edinburgh Festival, commencing in 1947 and the Perth and Adelaide Festivals, held in 1953 and 1960, were established on the ground of ‘post-war spirit of reconstruction and renewal’ (Allen et al, 2008). The evolution in events arrived with the increase in urbanisation (Bowdin et al, 2011) and has now, become a vital part of a community’s culture. Not forgetting, the commercialization in events; support from private firms to government bodies, all aim for tourism and economic development.
The aim of this essay is to discuss the various impacts events have in accordance with different dimensions, i.e. thematic, chronological and geographical. Furthermore, the essay will discuss the methods used by organizers to conduct and assess the impacts and lastly summarize with a brief reflection on the essay whilst providing recommendations for organizers to focus on for the future.
Getz (2008) and Jones (2001) have both studied event impacts; however Getz (2008) states that here are three crucial impacts; environmental, social and economic & political and links these with ex-post. Yet Jones (2001) considers ex-ante to be vital.
Namely, there are five impacts known widely; economic, environmental, social, technological and political. However, managerial, physical and cultural are also impacts which fall under thematic dimensions of event impacts.
Economic and Political Impacts
Goldman et al (1997) argue that economic impacts assist in creating employment and therefore, provide income. 1996 Olympics in Atlanta, generated 580,000 new jobs (Stevens and Bevan, 1999) and the 2000 Oktoberfest in Munich created new jobs for 12,000 people (Munich Tourist Office, 2000, cited in Richards and Wilson 2002). Not forgetting, the induced and indirect effects of economic impacts which have been studied by Kasimati (2003) and Chen (2001) who consider expenses towards accommodation, food and travel to be an impact. Generating employment and income are not the only economic impacts, as stated by Ritchie (1984) and Dwyer et al (2000). According to them, inflation, disruption to local businesses and also local population disappearing from the area in focus are impacts.
Roche (1984) proposes impacts, predominantly economic impacts, to be the benchmark for finalizing a mega-event. Roche (1994) investigated the 1991 World Student Games in Sheffield which showed a result of an impact of debt for the organizers, whereas the 1998 Spring Racing Carnival in Australia showed positive impacts; a contribution of $174 million towards the economy (Ingerson, 2001).
‘Economic conditions are influenced by politics and governments’ (Thompson, 2001). Ritchie (1984) investigated that, for example the Olympics, it is politicians who are deeply involved and thus have the opportunity to enhance their political image, apart from building international relations. The 2000 Sydney Olympic President announced retirement...