2. E – Government
3. Development and Implementation Issues
4. Internet as a Political Medium
5. Benefits and Disadvantages
6. The Advantages and Disadvantages of implementing an
7. Parameters of E-Governance
8. Status of E-Governments around the world
9. Practices of E-Governments
10. E-Governance in India
11.E-Governance in China
12.E-governance in Australia
With the advancement of ICT (Information, Communication Technology), the words like E-government and E-governance have come into prominence. In fact both these terms are used synonymously although they are quite different and have differing audiences to cater to and different objectives to achieve. E-Governance is a network of organizations to include government, nonprofit, and private-sector entities; in e-governance there are no distinct boundaries. The model for e-governance is a one-stop portal, such as firtgov.gov, where citizens have access to a variety of information and services. An ideal portal would be one for employment where a citizen creates a profile and is presented with employment opportunities at the federal, state, local, non-profit, and private-sectors currently websites like monster.com over these services but more often than not users are required to reenter their information for the specific job. However, not all stakeholders have the same desired end-state, which inhibits the possibility of a one-stop portal.
E-governance is not about software and hardware, but about people and processes. The early efforts of the Indian government to assign a computer to district headquarters were a major failure since there had been no strategy to address people's mindsets and reservations. More recently, in Jharkhand, top officials have been given laptops, but most are not put to envisaged use. Some say they preferred not to use it since they had not been given training. Capacity building is a pre-condition for the success of initiatives. A close assessment of initiatives like rural e-seva in West Godavari reflects the thought and effort invested in training self-help groups who run the e-seva kendrams. For government departments, the shift towards using IT is actually an opportunity for building the morale of their staff. Capacity building to train staff in using 3
hardware and software can have the positive effect of boosting employee selfimage and this is most likely to impact efficiency and productivity. Despite its population, the success of its IT industry and the government’s stated intent of wiring up villages, India lags in bandwidth necessary for info-access on the Net.
refers to the use of Internet technology as a platform for
exchanging information, providing services and transacting with citizens, businesses, and other arms of government. e-Government may be applied by the legislature, judiciary, or administration, in order to improve internal efficiency, the delivery of public services, or processes of democratic governance. The primary delivery models are Government-to-Citizen or Government-to-Customer (G2C), Government-to-Business (G2B) and Government-to-Government (G2G) & Government-to-Employees (G2E).
Within each of these interaction domains,
four kind of activities take place pushing information over the Internet, e.g.: regulatory services, general holidays, public hearing schedules, issue briefs, notifications, etc. two-way communications between the agency and the citizen, a business, or another government agency. In this model, users can engage in dialogue with agencies and post problems, comments, or requests to the agency. Conducting transactions, e.g.: lodging tax returns, applying for services and grants.
Governance, e.g.: online polling, voting, and campaigning.
The most important anticipated benefits of e-government include...