E-Commerce

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1.0 BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION
The title of the article is Impact of E-commerce on Travel and Tourism: An Historical Analysis written by the author, Farrokh G. Mamaghani, D.Sc. The journal for this article is International Journal of Management and was published at the year 2009, December. The author of this article, Farrokh G. Mamaghani, D.Sc is a Bachelor of Science (B.S.) in Physics from University of Tabriz, Iran and Master of Science (M.S.) in Systems Analysis and Management from George Washington University, Washington, D.C. He furthered pursued his education and now he is a Doctor of Science (D.Sc.) in Systems Analysis and Management from George Washington University, Washington, D.C. He is currently teaching at St. John Fisher College which is located in Rochester, New York as a Professor of Information Technology. He is also serving as an Advisory Committee Member for the committee, Communication Technology in the Information Age from 1998 till now.

2.0 INTRODUCTION
E-commerce had definitely brought on major impacts internationally towards the travel and tourism industry. Without doubt, many companies or organizations are taking advantage of this new form of electronic marketing. The companies and organizations are quick to realize the many doors of opportunity that e-commerce can open in the travel and tourism industry as it brings into existence a market potency that is unquestionably huge. This article is a historical analysis on how e-commerce has an effect upon the travel and tourism industry. 2.1 OBJECTIVES

The information in this article leans more towards the idea of conceptuality because the way the author portrays his ideas are realistic and focuses diminutively on observations and experiments. Besides, there are very little statistical data in this article and it is mostly based on the ideas or theories of the author himself and people. 2.2 ARTICLE BACKGROUND INFORMATION

This article was found in the BNET website which contains articles from the back issues of journals, magazines, trade publications and newspapers. Fundamentally, this article is about bringing forth ideas on how e-commerce works in the tourism industry. The respondents are travel agencies, economists, and people who has high interest on this article. 2.3 GENERAL BACKGROUND INFORMATION

E-commerce is practically the main street of the world, which is also known as electronic commerce or electronic marketing. E-commerce provides a quick and convenient way of selling and buying products and services through internet and other electronic networks both regionally and globally. There are 3 types of e-commerce which are business to business (B2B), business to consumer (B2C) and consumer to consumer (C2C). 3.0 SUMMARY

Electronic marketing which is also known as e-commerce was introduced through the development of the Internet and the World Wide Web. With this beneficial development, when it comes to holiday and budget planning, consumers now have more selections to decide from. With an understanding of local tourism business and the usage of Internet, you can see the increased visibility in extra market sectors. By registering with online travel agents, online marketing agents, and inter-organizational reservation systems, the global height of business services has increased. To cater a more convenient usage for customers, businesses have developed websites which offer planning, booking and payment services online. On information technology in the tourism and travel industry, there were two waves that impacted it extremely. First wave is the development of the direct reservation systems and the second wave is the development of online sales channels via the Internet. There are travel corporations who purchases unsold seats from airlines and sell them openly to customers at a lower price than what travel agents could offer using the global distribution systems (GDS) pricing. Customers became more price-sensitive because of the...
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