Year 11, Microbiology
Extended Experimental Investigation
Year 11, Microbiology
The following report discusses whether the bacteria E.coli K12 are able to gain resistance to nickel and aluminium over generations. It discusses the importance of bacteria and how it is used throughout everyday life. It discusses that some bacteria is used for human applications and shows how it can be helpful in certain situations. This report will discuss the background information on E.coli K12 and the uses of bacteria. Throughout the investigation a series of experiments will be conducted to determine if metals such as nickel and aluminium have a resistance to E.coli K12 over a sequence of generations. To complete the investigation four Macconkey agar plates were inoculated with E.coli k12 and four paper discs of aluminium and nickel that were soaked in metal salts were placed into the plates to see the resistance that would occur over. Once resistance had occurred, the zone of inhibition was scraped and placed into a new broth to create a bigger resistance over time. In conclusion aluminium had a larger resistance to E.coli K12 although in the final generations both metals decreased. Introduction
The aim of this experimental report is to discuss whether E.coli K12, over six generations could become resistant to metals and then we will refer it to antibiotic resistance. Bacteria are single celled prokaryotic organisms in the Kingdom Monera. Bacteria exist as parasites or independent free living organisms on the search for nourishment. Bacteria are very small, too small to be seen by the naked eye therefore is measured in micrometres. Bacteria are present in everyday life but only few are harmful to humans. Bacteria reproduce by a cell division called binary fission. Binary fission also known as prokaryotic fission is the process of where a cell divides asexually to produce the exact same bacteria. Although this is an effective way to reproduce bacteria, it does present difficulties. Due to the cells produced through identical reproduction they become prone to identical antibiotics therefore bacteria can increase variation by integrating genes from bacteria’s (How Do Bacteria Reproduce?. 2012).
Bacteria are present in everyday life and used for many human applications. Bacteria are present in: * Insulin-certain types of bacteria can produce insulin in the human body. Research is now being completed to one day use healthy bacteria for diabetics as it initiates are production for insulin in the body. Recombinant DNA is used in this element. Recombinant DNA is the genetic material from several sources to create structures that cannot be found in other organisms. All organisms share the same chemical structure although differ in the nucleotides within the structure, which is a link to a phosphate group that form the basic structure of DNA. Therefore, when different DNA structures are linked, they are able to be replicated to another (Jae Ireland, 2011). * Pest Controls- Particular bacteria’s cause pests to degenerate and slow down the reproduction system there is a form of natural pest control (Jae Ireland, 2011).. * Immune System- Bacteria is present in the human body immune system to break down food substances and prevent the body from serious illnesses (Jae Ireland, 2011). * Cheese- Bacteria is found in lactic acid that has relation to the aging of cheese. Bacteria are stimulated within the cheese causing the aging of the cheese to move on giving the individual flavours (Jae Ireland, 2011). Human body illnesses are brought about by infectious bacteria entering the human body either by food or water poisoning or inhaling bacteria. Once the bacteria have entered the body, the bacteria reproduce and duplicates and enters into cells. In the perspective of killing a bacterial infection, antibiotics are a common items used to do so....