E. Coli

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I. Title- ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE SHOWN THRU GENE TRANSFER WITH BIOLUMINESCENCE IN ESCHERICHIA COLI -Names of lab partners-
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II. INTRODUCTION
1. Background of antibiotics

- The history of antibiotics and how they have came about

a. Fleming’s discovery of penicillin and its early significance * Antibiotic inhibition of protein synthesis,
* cell wall synthesis,
* and other cellular processes
b. Antibody has been overused and has caused to lead to bacterial resistance * effects on daily life
* effects on the science industry
* effects on our genetic makeup
2. Background of the transfer of resistance genes from one bacterium to another thru conjugation, transformation, transduction (often across species boundaries)

- Location of genes in bacteria and their means of transfer

a. Genes located on plasmids, “portions” of bacteria and carry few traits. These plasmids usually carry a small number of genes (as compared with as many as several thousand on the chromosome), and are capable of replicating in the bacteria cell

b. Direct transfer by transformation of gene transfer from one bacterial cell to another (Purpose)

3. Process of experiment

a. Resistance to antibiotic ampicillin on Escherichia coli and the transfer and growth of the bacteria under various conditions (Purpose)

b. E. Coli carries plasmid for bioluminescence
c. In order to make E. coli take up the plasmid (we call this competence), we have to treat the cells with calcium chloride which causes the thick cell envelope of E. coli to become permeable to DNA. Competence (shock) of E. Coli cells to become permeable to DNA and accept plasmid 4. Information about E.coli

a. history
b. properties
II.1. Hypothesis

a. If the E. coli cells are transformed with the new plasmid DNA, then in the presence or absence of the antibiotic ampicillin, colonies should be present...
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